conservation biology

  1. Conservation biology
    • Conservation biology, which seeks to preserve life, integrates several fields
    • Ecology
    • Physiology
    • Molecular biology
    • Genetics
    • Evolutionary biology
  2. Biodiversity
    • Biodiversity has three main components
    • Genetic diversity
    • Species diversity
    • Ecosystem diversity

  3. People use some ecosystem goods directly
    • Hunting and fishing for food
    • Harvesting wood for heat and cooking
    • Extracting medicines from plants

  4. Ecosystem services benefit people indirectly
    • Soil formation
    • Erosion and soil control
    • Climate regulation
    • Genetic resources
    • Recreation

  5. Climate regulation
    • By providing shade, reducing temperature, and serving as windbreaks, plant communities have a major impact on local climates
    • Forests have a dramatic influence on the water cycle, returning water to the atmosphere through transpiration
    • Forests buffer against global warming by absorbing CO2 from the atmosphere and storing it in their trunks, roots, and branches
  6. rivet hypothesis
    • The rivet hypothesis postulates that similar species may have somewhat different positions in the web of ecosystem stability
    • Loss of certain species will not imperil an ecosystem, but loss of a few critical species may cause an ecosystem to collapse
    • Keystone species are neither redundant nor one of the rivets, but are fundamentally essential to the function of an ecosystem
  7. extinction
    • occur naturally at a very slow rate-background extinction rate
    • The current extinction rate is 100 to 1,000 times the background rate predicted in the absence of humans

    the fossil record provides evidence that five previous mass extinctions led to the eradication of many species in a relatively short time

    Most biologists believe that human activities are now causing a 6th mass extinction

  8. The direct impact of human activities,
    • habitat destruction,
    • overexploitation of wild populations,
    • invasive species,
    • pollution global warming

  9. Humans threaten biodiversity in a number of ways
    • Habitat destruction
    • Overexploitation
    • Harmful interaction with invasive species
    • Pollution
    • Global warming

  10. The four goals of conservation biology are to:
    • Understand the impact of human activities on species, populations, communities, and ecosystems
    • Preserve and restore natural communities
    • Reverse loss of biodiversity caused by human activities
    • Foster sustainable use of Earths resources

  11. Conservation requires the integrated efforts
    • Ecologists, geneticists, botanists, and zoologists
    • Government leaders, environmental lawyers, and ecological economists
    • Social scientists, educators, and conservation organizations
    • Individuals
  12. Core reserves
    • Core reserves: protected natural areas that preserve all levels of biodiversity
  13. Corridors
    • Corridors: connect critical animal habitats
    • Wildlife corridors, strips of protected land that link core reserves, allow for the safe passage of animals between habitats separated by human activities, thereby increasing the effective size of smaller reserves by connecting them

  14. Wildlife corridors
    • Wildlife corridors, strips of protected land that link core reserves, allow for the safe passage of animals between habitats separated by human activities, thereby increasing the effective size of smaller reserves by connecting them

  15. Why Is Sustainability the Key to Conservation?
    • Natural ecosystems share certain features that allow them to persist and flourish
    • Diverse communities with complex community interactions
    • Relatively stable populations that remain within the carrying capacity of the environment
    • Recycling and efficient use of raw materials
    • Reliance on renewable sources of energy
  16. iosphere Reserves
    • Biosphere Reserves provide models for conservation and sustainable development
    • the creation by the United Nations
    • The goal is to maintain biodiversity and evaluate techniques for sustaining development while preserving local cultural values

  17. The Design of an Ideal Biosphere Reserve
    core reserve: protected, may allow animal monitoring and low impact development

    Buffer zone- allows ressearch, education, training, tourism, and low impact development

    Transitional area- allows development and tourism, as well as sustainable fishing, forestry, and agriculture

  18. A minimal lifestyle must include:
    • Adequate food and clothing
    • Clean air and water
    • Good health care and working conditions
    • Educational and career opportunities
    • Access to natural environments

  19. Changes in technology
    • the use of renewable resources
    • technologies that dont produce toxic wastes or more carbon dioxide
    • emulate natural ecosystems by recycling nonrenewable resources
Card Set
conservation biology
conservation biology