1. decribe how sperm cells are formed
    spermatogenesis is the process that produces sperm cells by division of the spermatogenic cells in the germinal epithelium
  2. what is the function of the scrotum
    to hold the testes and allow movement to control tempeture so that viable sperm may be produced
  3. what is the function of testostrone
    the maturation of male reproductive organs, development of heavy bones, broad shoulders and the deepening voice
  4. what are the parts of the vulva
    mons pubis, clitoris, labium major and minor, urethral orifice, vaginal orifice, and perineum
  5. how are fsh lh estrogen and progesterone involved in ovarian and menstrual cycles
    • FSH- OVARIAN stimulates growth of egg and production of estrogen
    • MENSTRUAL development of primary egg during first few days
    • LH- OVARIAN allows the mature egg to be relased
    • MENSTRUAL causes egg to be released from overy
    • PROGESTERONE- OVARIAN pre pairs the egg to be fertilized
    • MENSTRUAL if egg not fertilized levels lower
  6. how do hormonal birth control methods work
    use high levels of progesterone and a low level of estrogen to prevent ovulation
  7. how do sperm cells reach the seconday oocyte
    after deposit the go in the uterine tubes. then are attracted to the secondary oocyte and they dissolve the glue like substance
  8. what hormonal changes are triggered by the presence of an implanted embryo
    hcg is released which causes estrogen and progesterone to increase which prevents the release of gnrh
  9. what composes the placenta and what is its function
    composed of embryonic and maternal tissues and it provides an interface between embro and mother to transport blood and nutrients
  10. how does the increased estrogen level contribute to the onset of labor
    as estrogen increases it over rides progesterone which allows the body to start contractions
  11. what circulatory changes occur in a newborn infant
    ambilical cord constricts and stops blood from mother to child and the childs pulmonary circulation becomes functional
  12. how do hormones control lactation
    high levels of estrogen and progesterone stimulate mammary glands and breast enlargement in prep for milk production
  13. what distinguishes the dominant/recessive pattern inheritance
    dominant traites are always expressed recessive are expressed when both recessive alleles are pressent
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