SOC 101: Exam 3

  1. Sherif's "autokenetic" effect
    • We conform to group in ambiguous conditions
    • Effect of group consensus carry over to behavior outside of the group
    • Unconscious process
  2. Conformity
    • Change in behavior due to the real or imagined influence of other people.
    • Group behavior; social behavior
  3. Asch experiment
    Naive subjects conform to confederates' even when they know answer is wrong
  4. Demonic possession as a theory of deviance
    Humans influenced by evil and show deviant behavior
  5. Cesare Lombroso's theory of atavism
    • Criminals are a throwback to pre-evolutionary man
    • Measured physical characteristics of criminals vs. noncriminals
    • Deviance related to physical and biological characteristics
  6. Mala in se
    Evil in and of themselves
  7. Mala prohibita
    Action bad only b/c they were prohibited by laws and norms
  8. Deviant acts - sociological definition
    One that violates social norm; it is a social contruction (not mala in se)
  9. Nature of deviace
    • Varies in seriousness
    • Varies across groups
    • Varies across time
    • Varies between subcultures
  10. Durkheim and suicidogenic factors
    • Anomie
    • Egoism
    • Altruism
    • Fatalism
  11. Anomie
    • Lack of regulation
    • Normlessness
  12. Egoism
    • Too little integration of people into society
    • Everything depends on you
  13. Altruism
    • Too much integration
    • Take one for the team
  14. Fatalism
    Too much regulation
  15. Robert Merton on anomie
    • Anomie occurs when there is a strain b/w goals & means
    • Anomie built into structure of society
  16. Dysfunctions of deviance
    • Personal harm & injury
    • Social and financial costs
    • Social disruptions
  17. Functions of deviance
    • Clarifies and affirms norms
    • Promotes social unity
    • Promots social change
  18. Responses to anomie according to Merton
    • Conformity (+/+)
    • Innovation (+/-)
    • Ritualism (-/+)
    • Retreatism (-/-)
    • Rebellion (±/±)
  19. Howard Becker
    • Deviance as a learned behavior
    • Learning the technique
    • Learning to perceive effects
    • Learning to enjoy
  20. Societal reaction and labeling theory
    • Who commits deviant act can be more important than act itself
    • Labeling is powerful and can becoming self-fulfilling
  21. Primary deviance
    Initial deviance
  22. Secondary deviance
    Subsequent acts of deviance following primary deviance to defend oneself from the problems created by the primary deviance.
  23. Erving Goffman, stigma
    • Stigma of negative social labels can spoil person's identity.
    • Stigma is any attribute that discredits a person from full social acceptance
  24. Stratification
    System that ppl rank & evaluate each other as superior or inferior and unequally reward one another.
  25. Caste system
    • Rank determined by birth
    • Based on ascribed characteristics
    • India
  26. Estate system
    • Rank determined by birth
    • Feudal system
    • Impersonal contact between estates
  27. Class system
    • People work their way up ranks
    • Achieved characteristics
    • (in theory at least)
  28. Marx's conception of class
    • Social clas is a category of ppl who occupy similar position in relation to the means of production
    • Bourgeoisie vs Proletariat
    • Exploitation
  29. Bourgeoisie
    Own means of production
  30. Proletariat
    • Working class
    • Sell labor
  31. Weber's conception of class
    • 3D of stratification: wealth, power and prestige
    • Life chances - social class had to do w/ one's ability to get what one wants in the market
  32. Kuznets curve
    • Relationship b/w means of production and level of social stratification is parabolic
    • Hunting to agrarian to industrial => very equal to very unequal to a little below very unequal
  33. Power vs. Authority
    Authority = legitimate power that is justified
  34. Status and prestige
    • Degree of social honor
    • Based on occupation
  35. Socioeconomic status (SES)
    Combination of wealth, power and prestige according to Weber
  36. Chattel slavery
    • Type of slavery where slaves are treated as property of their masters like cattle
    • PreCivil War south
    • Ascribed status
  37. Social mobility
    • Horizontal vs Vertical - occupation vs class
    • Inter- vs intra-generational - occurs across gen vs occurs within life time
  38. Open systems vs Closed systems
    Greater intragenerational mobility, degree of mobility
  39. Exogamy vs. endogamy
    Marriage outside stratum vs. marriage within stratum
  40. Davis and Moore's theory
    • Stratification system is a function for U. S. society
    • 1) functional importance of positions
    • 2) Limited talent pool
    • 3) Need to sacrifice
    • 4) Need for differential rewards and incentives
  41. Matthew Effect
    Rich gets richer, poor gets poorer
  42. Cultural explanations of inequality
    • Based on two assumptions:
    • 1) People pass on different values and beliefs
    • 2) Poorer people's values and beliefs not compatible with success in society
  43. Structural explanations of inequality
    Limited access to opportunities holds people back
  44. Blaming the victim
    People are poor b/c they don't work hard
  45. A dollar is not always a dollar
    • Some people's dollars cost more and buy less
    • College for ex, for some people, it pays to go but for others, not so much or not as much
  46. Prejudice
    • Judgement of some thing on the basis of prior experience with similar things
    • Attitude/beliefs
  47. Stereotypes
    • Oversimplified generalized images about members of a particular group
    • Attitude/beliefs
  48. Discrimination
  49. Merton's typology of prejudice and discrimination
    • Prejudice and/or discriminate
    • Bigot - (+/+)
    • Timid Bigot - (+/-)
    • Fair-weather egalitarian (-/+)
    • All-weather egalitarian (-/-)
  50. Gordon Allport and 5 categories of discrimination
    • 1) Verbal rejection
    • 2) Avoidance
    • 3) Active discrimination
    • 4) Physical attacks
    • 5) Extermination
  51. Individual discrimination
    Individual to individual
  52. Institutional discrimination
    Denial of opportunities and equal rights to individuals or groups that result from the normal operations of society
  53. "Isms"
    • Different from ordinary discrimination
    • Discrimination that occurs at the institutional level
  54. Louis Wirth on minority groups
    • Minority groups are singled out, unequal treatment
    • See themselves as objects of discrimination
    • Exclusion from full participation in society
  55. Pyramiding effect of discrimination
    Cumulative impact of encounters with racist behavior... builds up
  56. Race
    • Socially constructed attribute that is tied to cultural beliefs about differences in the physical make up of different individuals
    • It's a SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION not a social reality
  57. Ethnicity
    Shared lifestyle informed by cultural, historical, religious and/or national affiliations
  58. Racism
    Belief that humans are subdivided into distinct hereditary groups that are innately different in social behavior and mental capacities and can therefore be ranked as superior or inferior
  59. Colorblind Racism
    Belief that race should be ignored and that race-conscious practices and policies only foster racism
  60. Institutional racism
    Systematic white dominating of people of color embedded in social institutions
  61. Interpersonal racism
    Racial domination manifest in our dispositions, interactions and practices.
  62. Whiteness
    • Presented as normal or neutral
    • Transparency
  63. Gender
    • Social construction
    • Not same across cultures
  64. Margaret Mead's study
    • 3 New Guinea societies
    • 1) Men and women were maternal and feminine
    • 2) Both gender aggressive and ruthless
    • 3) Women dominant, men dependent
Card Set
SOC 101: Exam 3
Final Exam study guide for Intro to Sociology