sport psych final

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  1. what is universal trait theory?
    what are behaviors that leaders have?
    leadership behaviors can be learned

    consideration and initiating structure
  2. what is consideration?
    • leader behavior that is indictive of friendship, mutual trust, respect and warmth towards subordinate
    • -for younger or inexperienced players
  3. what is initiating structure?
    • clearly defining the relationship between leader and subordinate
    • -task motivated
    • -autocratic
  4. what is smith's sport personality contingency model?
    model describes how a leaders personality interacts with the situation
  5. what is behavioral signature?
    coaches have behavioral signature that is a function of their personality, situation, and CAPS
  6. what is a personality paradox?
    personality doesnt change but the situation may
  7. what is the coaching behavior assessment system?

    who is this given to?
    • types of behaviors recorded when
    • -players perform well
    • -players make mistake
    • -player misbehaves
    • spontaneous behaviors that are
    • -game related
    • -game irrelevant

    players and coaches
  8. what is the sandwich approach to effective coaching?
    • compliment
    • postive reinforcement
    • compliment
  9. those who play certain central positions on the playing field benefit from what?

    greater future leadership oppurtunities

    catcher and pitcher
  10. what is task dependence?
    refers to the interaction between players on the same team
  11. what is propinquity?
    refers to the observability and visibilty on the playing field
  12. what does centrality mean?

    usually enjoy what postition in the future?
    means to be playing more than the middle field, its means playing in a position of high task dependance and high propinquity

    managerial oppurtunities
  13. what is stacking?
    disproportionate placement of minorties into positions of low centrality relative to task dependence and propinquity
  14. research has showed what for stacking and minorities?
    underrepresented in central positions where oppurtunities for leadership are greatest
  15. why is there decline in black major league players?
    • financial reasons
    • baseball cannot match the "buzz" other sports make
    • few black roles currently exsist
  16. what is anxiolytic effects of exercise?
    anxiety reducing effects of exercise
  17. what is acute exercise?
    short duration
  18. what is chronic exercise?
    • exercise that is long term
    • ex. 12 months
  19. what is aerobic exercise?
    sufficient oxygen avaiable for continuous exercise

    ex. running
  20. what is anaerobic exercise?
    • exercise with oxygen debt
    • ex. weight lifting
  21. what did aerobic exercise intensity research find?
    moderate intensity was the best to reduce negative effects
  22. what is resistance?
    exercise that involves the use of weights or weight training and more than 30 min.
  23. what did research find about resistance exercise intensity?
    moderate intense resistance exercise is superior
  24. what is the ekkekakis dual model hypothesis?
    different mechanisms which affective responses are generated
  25. what does ekkekakis dual model hypothesis think about lactate threshold and exercise?
    • exercise above lactate threshold should be percieved as unpleasant
    • exercise below lactate threshold should percieved as pleasant
  26. for the general population the mode of walking is effective in enhancing what?
    psychological benefits
  27. for the general population the mode of walking outdoors is more effective in enhancing what?
    psychological benefits than walking indoors
  28. for the clincal populations the measurable benefits of regular exercise activity are what for individuals suffering from psychological disorders than normal individuals?
  29. in elderly populations besides improved positive affect what are benefits are there?
    perserving cognitive functioning that normally declines with age
  30. what effect does music and exercise?
    • improve positive effect
    • can reduce fatigue symptoms
    • increase relaxation
  31. what effect does social enviroment and exercise ?
    socially enriched enviroment can result in greater self revitalization and self efficacy
  32. what type of relationship exsists between exercise and improved cognitive functioning?
    greater exercise function and greater cognitive function
  33. what shows positive relationship between exercise and cognitive functioning?

    what reduced strength of relationship?
    meta analyses

    cause and effect relationship
  34. what does not estabalish cause and effect relationship?
    that two variables are correlated does not prove that one causes another
  35. what are two approaches to identifying brain mechanisms that explain relationship?
    • information processing speed
    • executive function
  36. what is information processing speed?
    simple and complex measures of reaction time and response time
  37. what is executive function?
    higher order cognitive ability that controls basic cognitive functions
  38. how do to measure executive function?
    • tests such as:
    • erickson flanker test
    • stroop test
    • complex reaction time test
  39. what do research conclusions show regarding exercise and executive function?
    • exercise can improve information processing speed
    • exercise can improve higher brain function
    • *prefrontal cortex
  40. what is the amine hypothesis?
    balance of neurotransmitter in brain = feel better
  41. what is the endorphin hypothesis?
    ex.) runners high
    hormone in blood and brain = feel better
  42. what are the stages of exercise adherance
    • sendentary -> exercise adoption (T1)
    • exercise adoption -> maintenance or dropout (T2)
    • dropout -> exercise resumption (T3)
  43. what motivates a sendentary individual to become physically active?
    • confidence
    • knowledge of healthy lifestyle
    • perception of self control
    • good attitude
  44. what determines if a person does not drop out?
    • avaiable time
    • behavioral coping skills
    • group cohesion
  45. what determines if a person does drop out?
    • overweight
    • blue collar
    • mood state
    • physical discomfort
  46. what is theory of reasoned action?
    attitude + social norm cause intention to exercise which lead to exercise behavior
  47. what is the theory of planned behavior?
    exercise behavior with personalty, past behavior and self efficacy lead to exercise
  48. what is the transtheoretical model applied to exercise?
    • five dynamic stages in adopting a healthy long term exercise behavior
    • interventions called process of change
  49. what are the 5 processes of change?
    • precontemplation
    • contemplation
    • preperation
    • action
    • maintenance
  50. definition: process of change
    interventions to help a person move on from one stage to the next
  51. what is the interaction hypothesis?
    • cognitive - early stages
    • behavioral- later stages
  52. what is the self determination theory applied to exercise?
    • chapter on self confidence and intrinsic motivation
    • autonomy, competence and relatedness with exercise behavior -> instrinsc motivation
  53. what are the self determination theory research findings?
    • coercian are ineffective
    • reinforcing motivation = positive
    • rewards and threats are poor long term motivators
  54. how is fitness a moderator of life stress?
    buffer of life stress and reduces hypertension with fewer doctors visits needed
  55. how is exercise linked to cancer?
    • without cancer: lowers incidence of breast and colon cancer
    • with cancer: improved psychological well being
  56. how is exercise and immune system related?
    • immune system stimulated by moderate exercise
    • creates resistance to illness
  57. what is stress inoculation?
    refers to the ability of individuals to insulate against stressors of life through regular exercise
  58. what is life stress?
    accumulation of daily hassles and challenges of living out our lives
  59. what does physical fitness moderate a relationship between?
    life stress and illness
  60. what are personality characteristics related to exercise behavior?
    • vitality
    • integration
    • lack of anxiety
    • lack of shyness
  61. exercise during reproductive years can reduce what risk?
    breast cancer
  62. chronic intense exercise beyond recommendation can lead to what?
    reduction of the immune system
  63. what is the best exercise load for the immune system
    medium (moderate)
  64. those with HIV can still do what type of exercise?
  65. what is social physique anxiety?
    when people percieve others evaluate their physiques negatively
  66. what is appearance impression motivation?
    level of motivation that an indivdiual has to present their physical appearance in a positive way
  67. what is physical self concept?
    perception that people have about themselves relative to the physical self
  68. what is body image?
    images or mental pictures that have about their own bodies
  69. how can you measure body image?
    MBSRQ questionare
  70. what are the body image trends?
    • dissatification increased
    • women - motivated by media
    • female athletes - want to be more muscular
  71. what is the drive for muscularity?
    desire to achieve an idealized muscular body type
  72. what are psychological predictors of athletic injury?
    • personality
    • history of stressors
    • coping resources
    • interventions
  73. what is the stress and injury model ?
    athletes inability to respond to the demands of potentially stressful athletic situation results in the stress response
  74. what are personality factors effect how the athlete does?
    • hardiness
    • locus of control
    • sense of coherance
    • competitive trait anxiety
    • instrinsic motivation
  75. what might life stress and daily hassles lead to?
    injury vulnerability
  76. how can previous injury have an effect?
    fear of reinjury
  77. what are coping resources?
    • coping behaviors
    • social support
    • stress management
    • attentional stragety
    • medication
  78. what are coping behaviors?
    behaviors that assist an individual in dealing with stressful situation
  79. what is social support?
    individuals who provide support including parents, friends, coaches
  80. what are the 3 types of support?
    • emotional
    • informational
    • tangible
  81. how is stress management used?
    reduces stress response associated with reduction in number of injuries
  82. what is attentional strategy?
    association (focus on body) and dissoation (focus on ipod)
  83. how do interventions work with athletes?
    can reduce number and severity of athletic injuries
  84. what is pre-injury cognitive appraisal?
    rethinking how one plans to address a particular stressful situation
  85. what is pre-injury physiological/attention aspects?
    modified through progressive relaxation and injury
  86. what is rehabilitation rehearsal?
    concious use of mental imagery for the purpose of effective coping with injury rehabilitation
  87. what is injury rehabilitation intervention?
    • includes:
    • imagery
    • relaxation
    • goal setting
    • biofeedback
  88. what is emotional disclosure paradigm?
    writing about suppressed negative thoughts and feelings
  89. what is pain management?
    • pain tolerance
    • ways of categorizing pain
    • measuring percieved pain
    • pain reducing techniques
    • pain catastrophizing
  90. what is pain tolerance?
    • personality characteristics that have an impact upon cognitive appraisal, emotional response
    • low pain tolerance = difficult rehabilitation
  91. what is benign pain?
    • harmless pain
    • ex. chest pain
  92. what is harmful pain?
    dangerous pain
  93. what is subjective experience pain?
    cannot be measured directly or felt by another
  94. what is percieved pain?
    intense and unpleasant pain on scale of 0-10
  95. what is the sports inventory for pain ?
    25 item inventory that measures five aspects of pain being expereinced
  96. what are pain reducing techniques?
    • pharmacological pain management - drugs short term
    • nonpharmacolgical pain managment- association and dissociation
  97. what is pain catastrophizing?
    degree to which individuals focus on pain
  98. when returning to competition what are athlete concerns?
    • may not be ready
    • fear of reinjury
  99. what experiences are associated with a successful athlete return?
    • high motivation
    • positive and negative emotions
    • does not rush decision
    • copes with injury flare ups
  100. what could cause career termination besides injury?
    • coping resources
    • money
    • financial plan
    • social support
  101. what is distrubted approach?
    sport psychologist helps coach
  102. what is the specialist approach?
    hiring of sport psychologist for team
  103. what are some of the benefits from recovering from an injury
    • personal growth benefits
    • performance enhancement
    • physical and technical development
  104. what are the effects of injury on teammates?
    • injury contagion
    • worry about injurying themselves
    • planned interventions
  105. what is injury contagion?
    may arise when teammate sees another teammate get injured
  106. what are anabolic steroids?
    synthetic derivatives of testosterone that effect muscularity and mascunilty
  107. what are the symptoms of steroids?
    • temper
    • lower voice
    • more hair
    • more acne
  108. what biological effects do anabolic steroids have?
    • increased body wt
    • altered body composition
    • increased muscle size and strength
    • increased blood volume
    • increased number of red blood cells
  109. what are some of the psychological symptoms of steroids?
    aggressive behavior
  110. what is psychological expectancy effect?
    • placebo effect
    • athlete thinks drug will improve performance
  111. what has the MLB done about it?
    severe punishment
  112. what are other banned drugs and substances?
    • stimulants
    • depressants
    • diuretics
    • beta blockers
    • creatinine
  113. what are stimulants?
    excites and increases awareness and energy
  114. what are depressants?
    sedatives believed to relieve tension and depression
  115. what are diuretics?
    reduce body weight through fluid elimination
  116. what are beta blockers?
    • steady and slow heart rate
    • decrease performance anxiety
  117. why do athletes use creatinine?
    increase body mass and water retention
  118. what does creatine do to performance?
    • explosive outburst of energy
    • reactions include: distress nausea
  119. what is a dietary supplement?
    HGH human growth hormone
  120. how to combat drug abuse in sport?
    • cognitive techniques
    • behavioral teachniques
  121. what are cognitive techniques to combat drug abuse
    • coach shows concern for athletes
    • team policy on drug abuse
  122. what is the deterrence theory as a strategy to deter the use of drugs?
    • cost/benefit
    • -consequences
    • -time
    • -reflection
  123. what is exercise dependence?
    • addicted to exercise
    • go through withdrawl/anxiety/moody without it
  124. what are the characteristics of exercise dependent individuals?
    • tolerance
    • withdrawl
    • intention effects
    • loss of control
    • time
    • conflict
    • continuance
  125. what is tolerance?
    increase frequency and intensity
  126. what is withdrawl?
    experience mood disturbance
  127. what is intention effects?
    go beyond intentions
  128. what is loss of control?
    cannot control amount of exercise
  129. what conflict is created with exercise dependent individuals
    occupational and social
  130. what gender becomes more exercise dependent?
    both the same
  131. exercise dependence is seen with what other disorder?
    eating disorders
  132. what is anorexia nervosa?
    • severe wt loss
    • refusal to maintain normal wt
    • intense fear of gaining wt
    • 15% below normal body wt
  133. what is bulimia nervosa?
    • binge eating followed by purge
    • loss of self control
    • normal body wt
  134. what is ED-NOS
    does not contain all the criteria for diagnosis just behaviors
  135. what is anorexia athletica?
    • ED-NOS describes fear of obesity
    • goal of being in sport is to not be fat
  136. how do you diagnose a eating disorder
  137. subclinical eating disorders are much more prevelant among who?
    athletes - ED-NOS
  138. what are unhealthy wt control measures used by subclinical athletes?
    • diet pills
    • diuretics
    • fat free diets
    • laxatives
    • fasting
  139. what type of body image can lead to eating disorders?
  140. what is body objectification theory?
    thinness culture in which a female person comes to view her body as an object
  141. whats involved in the female triad?
    • disordered eating
    • menstrual dysfunction
    • low bone mineral density
  142. factors that influence the incidence of eating disorders?
    • female
    • sports encourging thinness
    • ego
    • coaches
    • culture
  143. research shows a relationship between what type of exercise and development of eating disorders?
  144. what is muscle dysmorphia?
    preoccupation with notion that he is insufficiently muscular
  145. bullying leads to what in men?
    muscle dysmorphia
  146. what is burnout?
    emotional/physical exhaustion
  147. what is the investman model of burnout?
    • investment in activity
    • too much = burnout
    • enjoy sport = may cause less burnout
  148. what are some causes of sport burnout?
    • heavy training
    • performance demands
    • pressure to perform at high levels
    • nagging injuries
    • media and fan expectations
  149. what are some symptoms of sport burnout?
    • emotional/physical exhaustion
    • reduced sense of accomplishment
    • sport devaluation
  150. physical symptoms?
    • increased resting heart rate
    • increased sleep loss
    • decreased body wt
    • increased colds
    • increased muscle soreness
  151. physiological symptoms?
    • increased mood disturbance
    • decreased self esteem
    • negative change in quality of personal interaction
  152. recommendations on how to avoid burnout?
    • play for own reasons
    • balance sport with life
    • not fun dont play
    • relax take time off
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sport psych final
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