MGMT 340 CH_18

  1. types of resistance to change
    overt, implicit, immediate, or deferred
    • it's easiest for management to deal with overt and immediate resistance, such as complaints, a work slowdown, or a strike threat.
    • the greater challenge is managing resistance that is implicit or deferred
    • these responses-loss of loyalty or motivation, increased errors or absenteeism-are more subtle and more difficult to recognize for what they are
    • deffered actions also cloud the link between the cange and the reaction to it and may surface weeks, months, or even years
    • or a single change of little inherent impact may be the straw that breaks the camel's back because resistance to earlier changes has been deferred and stockpiled
  2. sources of resistance to change
    individual sources - resides in human characteristics such as perceptions, personalities, and needs
    • habit - th cope with life's complexities, we rely on habits or programmed responses. but when confronted with the change, this tendency to respond in our accustomed ways becomes a source of resistance
    • security - people with a high need for security are likely to resist change because it threatens their feelings of safety
    • economic factors - changes in job tasks or established work routines can arouse economic fears if people are concered that they won't be able to perform the new tasks or routines to their previous standards, especially when pay is closely tied to productivity
    • fear of unknown - changes substitutes ambiguity and uncertainty for the unknown
    • selective information processing - individuals are guilty of selectively processing information in order to keep their perception intact. they hear what they want to hear, and they ignore information that challenges the world they've created
  3. sources of resistance to change
    organizational sources - reside in the structural makeup of organizations themselves
    • structural inertia - organizations have built-in mechanisms - such as their selection processess and formalized regulations - to produce. when an organization is confronted with change, this structural inertia acts as a counterbalance to sustain stability
    • limited focus of change - organizations consist of a number of interdependent subsystems. one can't be changed without affecting the others. so linited changes in subsystems tend to be nullified by the larger system
    • group inertia - even if individuals want to change their behavior, group norms may act as a constraint
    • threat to expertise - changes in organizational patterns may threaten the expertise of specialized groups
    • threats to established pwer relationships - any redistribution of decision-making authority can threaten long-established power relationships within the organization
  4. politics of change
    politics suggest the impetus for change is more likely to come from outside change agentsl, employees new to the organization (who have less invested in the status quo), or managers slightly removed from the main power structure
  5. action research
    5-step scientific method
    • diagnosis - analogous th the physician's search to find specifically what ails a patient
    • analysis - what patterns do these problems seem to take
    • feedback - requires sharing with employees what has been found from the first and second steps
    • action - employee and change agent carry out the specific actions they have identified to correct the problem
    • evaluation - the action's plan effectiveness, using the initial data gathered as a benchmark
  6. underlying values in organizational development
    • respect for people - individuals are perceived as responsible, conscientious, and caring. they should be treated with dignity and respect
    • trust and support - an effective and healthy orgaization is characterized by trust, authenticity, openess, and a supportive climate
    • power equalization - effective organizations deemphasize hierarchical authority and control
    • confrontation - problems should be openly confronted, not swept under the rug
    • participation - the more engaged in the decisions they are, the more people affected by a change will be committed to implementing them
  7. interventions of change agents
    appreciative inquiry - 4 steps
    • discovery - set out to identify what people think are the organization's strengths
    • dreaming - EEs use info from the discovery phase to speculate on possible futures, such as what the org will be like in 5 yrs
    • design - participants find a common visioni of hwo the org will look in the future and agree on its unique qualities
    • destiny - how to fulfill their dream, and how they typically write action plans and develop implementation strategies
  8. innovation and its sources
    innovation - is a new idea applied to initiating or improving a product, process, or service
    • structural variables - have been the most studied potential source of innovation
    • cultures - have similar cultures, encourage experimentation, reward both successes and failures, celebrates mistakes
    • human resources - actively promote the training and development of their members so they keep currentoffer high job security so EEs don't fear getting fired for making mistakes, and encourage individuals to become champions of change
  9. characteristics of a learning organization
    • there exists a shared vision that everyone agrees on
    • people discard their old ways of thinking and the standard routines they use for solving problems or doing their jobs
    • members think of all organizational processes, activities, functions, and interactions with the environment as part of a system of interrelationships
    • people openly communicate with each other (across vertical and horizontal boundaries) without fear of criticism or punishment
    • people sublimate their personal self-interest and fragmented departmental itnerests to work together to achieve the org shared vision
  10. creating learning organizations
    • establish a strategy - management needs to make explicit its commitment to change, innovation, and continuous improvement
    • redesign the organization's structure - the formal structure can be a serious impediment to learning. flattening the structure, eliminating or combining departments, and increasing the use of cross-functional teams, reinforces interdependence and reduces boundaries
    • reshape the organization's culture - managers must demonstrate by their actions that taking risks and admitting failures are desirable. bring paradoxes, conflicts, and dilemmas out in the open, so collectively we can be omre intelligent than we can be individually
  11. kotter's 8-step plan for implementing change
    • establish a sense of urgency by creating a compelling reason for why change is needed
    • form a coalition with enough power to lead the change
    • create a new vision to direct the change and strategies for achieving the vision
    • communicate the vision throughout the org
    • empower others to act on the vision by removing barriers to change and encouraging risk taking and creative problem solving
    • plan for, create, and reward short-term "wins" that move the org toward the new vision
    • consolidate improvements, reassess changes, and make necessary adjustments in the new programs
    • reinforce the changes by demonstrating the relationship between new behaviors and organizational success
Card Set
MGMT 340 CH_18
Organizational Change and Stress Management