- An argument is valid if it is the case that the truth of the premises
- guarantees the truth of the conclusion.
- An argument is sound if the argument is valid and all the statements,
- including the conclusion are true.
- Is moving from specific observations to broader generalizations and
- theories. The problem with induction is that it makes generalizations about a
- subject. For example the idea that all the ravens are true because up to today
- all the ravens observed are black is in principle wrong.
A system that states that there are no objective truths.
- A theory of knowledge that
- asserts that knowledge comes only of primarily via sensory experience.
- The belief that the world we live in can be understood by the use of
Is the idea that only minds and ideas exist.
- A skeptics is one who
- doesn’t think we have or even can have knowledge of a particular sort.
- There exist two distinct substances (i.e. immaterial mind and material
- Traditional approach to
- explaining mind and behavior by way of concepts such as beliefs thoughts, pain
- Type Identity theories hold that at
- least some types of mental states are literally identical with some types of
- brain states.
- Mental States are defined in terms
- of their relations to Sensory input, other mental states, and behavioral
- are no mental states—there are only brain states.
- are the subjective or qualitative
- properties of experiences. What it feels like, experientially.
Mentalstates have no casual sates, but physical states can cause mental states.
Allfacts are physical facts.
- That feature of some mental states by which they are directed toward objects or
- states of affairs in the world.
Traditional definition of God :
- omnipotence, omniscience, Omnibenevolence,
- and omnipresence. Meaning, the Judeo-Christian God is all-powerful, all
- knowing, all loving, and ever-present.
A priori vs. a posteriori:
- A priori is a type of knowledge that is
- derived without experience or observation. They are true regardless of
- experiment or observation. For example: 2 + 2 = 4. A posteriori is a type of
- knowledge, which is derived through experience or observation.
- that do not require an explanation. a brute fact is one whose truth does
- not depend on some more fundamental fact or facts.
- things being equal, a simpler explanation is better than a more complex
- one." It tries to explain the reasons why sometimes the increase in
- population is not necessary.
Objections against the Ontological argument:
1) Anselm: 1 Suppose god existed only in the understanding.
2. It could have existed in reality as well.
3. If it existed in reality it would have been greater.
- 4. Therefore, a
- GCB could have been greater.
5. 4 is absurd
- 6. Therefore, a
- GCB exists not only in the --------------------understanding,
- but in reality as well.
- 2) Guanil0’s Objection: If the argument succeds,
- then we can prove the existence of things, which we know, don’t exist (e.g. the
- perfect island)
- 3) Kant: Existence is not a property. Existence is a
- precondition for having
- properties. Kant says that premise 3 is false . Existence is about
- correspondence between an idea and the world.
- 4) GCG & possibility: In order for the
- GCB to be possible i.e. for 2 to be true, one must show that there is a limit
- to how great a being can be.
First Pass (Aquinas’s 2nd way)
1. Everything has a cause
2. Nothing can cause itself.
3. Causal chains cannot go back infinitely into the past.
4. There must be a first cause.
- Problem: it is a basic
- presupposition that we all make. Nature is not bound to satisfy our
Second Pass ( Clarke)
1. Principle of Sufficient Reason (PSR)
2. Every being is either dependent or self existent.
3. Not every being can be dependent
4. There exists a self existent being
Principle of Sufficient Reason:
There must be an explanation for the existence of every being and every fact.
A being which is explained by something other than itself.
A self that is accounted for by its own nature.
3 Objections for the cosmological argument:
- 1) Why cant there be an infinite chain of dependent
- beings…-violates the PSR.
2) Why believe PSR is true?
- 3) Either is true that everything has a cause or it isn’t. Then God has a cause. Then why not
- allow that the universe is doesn’t require a cause.
Replies to the Cosmological argument:
A: it is institutively true.
Problem:it is not unanimous
B: It isa basic presupposition that we all make.
Problem:Nature is not bound to satisfy our presuppositions.
***Argument from Design***
Argument form analogy
Inferring that 2 objects are similar insome respect on the basis of the fact that they are similar in other respects.
Complex Order Adaptation of means to ends… It has a purpuse and it is well suited for accomplishing that purpose.
Hume’s three objections:
1) The argument rests on a weak analogy.
- The greater the dissimilarity
- between the objects in question, the weaker the analogy.
- 2) We can observe the creation of watches
- though we cannot observe the creation of the universe.
- 3) Evolution provides an alternative
- explanation for the complex order of the universe.
- The argument seems to imply that God was
- also created by intelligent design.
- 1) There are several basic physical
- constants that had to be just as they are in order for life to be possible.
- 2) The possibility of all of these constants
- being just as they are is incredibly low.
3) Therefore it requires an explanation.
4) God made it so is a good explanation.
- 5) In fact, God made it so it is the best
- explanation we have.
- 6) Therefore, we have good reason to believe
- in the existence of God.
Objections for the argument for design:
1) other possible kinds of life.
2) Why not think That god is also fine tuned
- 3) Every possible combination of values for
- the constants is equally impossible, so why does “our’ way require an
- 4) Multiverse hypothesis: Points out the
- existence of many distinct universes each with its own physical constants. They
- would produce the unlikehood of our universe tuning out as id did.
- Results of operations of nature…. ie Tornadoes,
- hurricanes, earthquakes,
Rape, murder, torture, and all that stuff.