philosophy final

  1. Validity:
    • An argument is valid if it is the case that the truth of the premises
    • guarantees the truth of the conclusion.
  2. Soundness:
    • An argument is sound if the argument is valid and all the statements,
    • including the conclusion are true.
  3. Induction:
    • Is moving from specific observations to broader generalizations and
    • theories. The problem with induction is that it makes generalizations about a
    • subject. For example the idea that all the ravens are true because up to today
    • all the ravens observed are black is in principle wrong.
  4. Relativism:
    A system that states that there are no objective truths.
  5. Empiricism:
    • A theory of knowledge that
    • asserts that knowledge comes only of primarily via sensory experience.
  6. Rationalism:
    • The belief that the world we live in can be understood by the use of
    • reason.
  7. Idealism:
    Is the idea that only minds and ideas exist.
  8. Skepticism:
    • A skeptics is one who
    • doesn’t think we have or even can have knowledge of a particular sort.
  9. Substance
    • There exist two distinct substances (i.e. immaterial mind and material
    • body)
  10. Folk
    • Traditional approach to
    • explaining mind and behavior by way of concepts such as beliefs thoughts, pain
    • etc.
  11. Identity
    • Type Identity theories hold that at
    • least some types of mental states are literally identical with some types of
    • brain states.
  12. Functionalism:
    • Mental States are defined in terms
    • of their relations to Sensory input, other mental states, and behavioral
    • output.
  13. Eliminativism:
    • There
    • are no mental states—there are only brain states.
  14. Qualia:
    • are the subjective or qualitative
    • properties of experiences. What it feels like, experientially.
  15. Epiphenomenalism:
    Mentalstates have no casual sates, but physical states can cause mental states.
  16. Physicalism:
    Allfacts are physical facts.
  17. Intentionality:
    • That feature of some mental states by which they are directed toward objects or
    • states of affairs in the world.
  18. Traditional definition of God :
    • omnipotence, omniscience, Omnibenevolence,
    • and omnipresence. Meaning, the Judeo-Christian God is all-powerful, all
    • knowing, all loving, and ever-present.
  19. A priori vs. a posteriori:
    • A priori is a type of knowledge that is
    • derived without experience or observation. They are true regardless of
    • experiment or observation. For example: 2 + 2 = 4. A posteriori is a type of
    • knowledge, which is derived through experience or observation.
  20. Brute Facts
  21. Facts
    • that do not require an explanation. a brute fact is one whose truth does
    • not depend on some more fundamental fact or facts.
  22. Ockham’s Razor:
    • "other
    • things being equal, a simpler explanation is better than a more complex
    • one." It tries to explain the reasons why sometimes the increase in
    • population is not necessary.
  23. Objections against the Ontological argument:
    1) Anselm: 1 Suppose god existed only in the understanding.

    2. It could have existed in reality as well.

    3. If it existed in reality it would have been greater.

    • 4. Therefore, a
    • GCB could have been greater.

    5. 4 is absurd

    • 6. Therefore, a
    • GCB exists not only in the --------------------understanding,
    • but in reality as well.

    • 2) Guanil0’s Objection: If the argument succeds,
    • then we can prove the existence of things, which we know, don’t exist (e.g. the
    • perfect island)

    • 3) Kant: Existence is not a property. Existence is a
    • precondition for having
    • properties. Kant says that premise 3 is false . Existence is about
    • correspondence between an idea and the world.

    • 4) GCG & possibility: In order for the
    • GCB to be possible i.e. for 2 to be true, one must show that there is a limit
    • to how great a being can be.
  24. ***Cosmological Arugument***

    First Pass (Aquinas’s 2nd way)
    1. Everything has a cause

    2. Nothing can cause itself.

    3. Causal chains cannot go back infinitely into the past.

    4. There must be a first cause.

    • Problem: it is a basic
    • presupposition that we all make. Nature is not bound to satisfy our
    • presuppositions.
  25. Second Pass ( Clarke)
    1. Principle of Sufficient Reason (PSR)

    2. Every being is either dependent or self existent.

    3. Not every being can be dependent

    4. There exists a self existent being
  26. Principle of Sufficient Reason:
    There must be an explanation for the existence of every being and every fact.
  27. Dependent Being
    A being which is explained by something other than itself.
  28. Self-existent Being:
  29. A self that is accounted for by its own nature.
  30. 3 Objections for the cosmological argument:
    • 1) Why cant there be an infinite chain of dependent
    • beings…-violates the PSR.

    2) Why believe PSR is true?

    • 3) Either is true that everything has a cause or it isn’t. Then God has a cause. Then why not
    • allow that the universe is doesn’t require a cause.
  31. Replies to the Cosmological argument:
    A: it is institutively true.

    Problem:it is not unanimous

    B: It isa basic presupposition that we all make.

    Problem:Nature is not bound to satisfy our presuppositions.

  32. ***Argument from Design***

    Argument form analogy
    Inferring that 2 objects are similar insome respect on the basis of the fact that they are similar in other respects.
  33. Complex Order:
    Complex Order Adaptation of means to ends… It has a purpuse and it is well suited for accomplishing that purpose.
  34. Hume’s three objections:
    1) The argument rests on a weak analogy.

    • The greater the dissimilarity
    • between the objects in question, the weaker the analogy.

    • 2) We can observe the creation of watches
    • though we cannot observe the creation of the universe.

    • 3) Evolution provides an alternative
    • explanation for the complex order of the universe.

    • The argument seems to imply that God was
    • also created by intelligent design.
  35. Fine-Tuning Argument
    • 1) There are several basic physical
    • constants that had to be just as they are in order for life to be possible.

    • 2) The possibility of all of these constants
    • being just as they are is incredibly low.

    3) Therefore it requires an explanation.

    4) God made it so is a good explanation.

    • 5) In fact, God made it so it is the best
    • explanation we have.

    • 6) Therefore, we have good reason to believe
    • in the existence of God.
  36. Objections for the argument for design:
    1) other possible kinds of life.

    2) Why not think That god is also fine tuned

    • 3) Every possible combination of values for
    • the constants is equally impossible, so why does “our’ way require an
    • explanation?

    • 4) Multiverse hypothesis: Points out the
    • existence of many distinct universes each with its own physical constants. They
    • would produce the unlikehood of our universe tuning out as id did.

  37. Natural Evil
    • Results of operations of nature…. ie Tornadoes,
    • hurricanes, earthquakes,
  38. Moral Evil:
    Rape, murder, torture, and all that stuff.
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philosophy final
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