Fluid and Electrolytes II

  1. What is the normal value for K+?
    3.5-5.0 mEq/L
  2. What are two things that cause intracellular shifting which can lead to hypokalemia?
    • Metabolic alkalosis
    • Drugs
    • Total body deficit: Poor dietary intake of potassium
    • Excessive loss: extra-renal, renal
  3. What drugs can cause hypokalemia due to intracellular shifting?
    • Beta-2 agonists (albuterol)
    • Theophylline
    • Insulin
  4. What are extra-renal losses that can cause hypokalemia?
    • Diarrhea
    • Vomiting
  5. What are drugs that can cause renal loss of K+?
    • Diuretics
    • Amphotericin
  6. What electrolyte disorder can contribute to hypokalemia?
  7. What is the most common clinical presentation of hypokalemia?
  8. What is the clinical presentation of hypokalemia?
    • Muscle cramping
    • Impaired muscle contraction
    • EKG changes: bradycardia, ST segment depression or flattening
    • Cardiac arrhythmias: heart block, v. fib
  9. What levels are classified as mild hypokalemia?
    3.0-3.5 mEq/L
  10. What levels are classified as moderate to severe hypokalemia?
    < 3.0 mEq/L
  11. How would you treat mild hypokalemia?
    Oral potassium supplement: Potassium Cl tablets, powders
  12. What limits the amount of oral potassium that can be given at a time?
    GI upset with high doses
  13. What is the highest amount of PO potassium that can be given at one time to decrease GI upset?
    20 mEq per dose
Card Set
Fluid and Electrolytes II