1. What do the terms "digestion" and "absorption" refer to?
    • Digestion is the process of turning the food you eat into smaller units.
    • Absorption is the movement of those small units from the digestive tract into the circulatory system.
  2. Name each of the digestive organs and briefly discuss its role in digestion and absorption.
    • 1) Mouth: releases enzymes that softens food.
    • 2) Esophagus: pushes food along and passes through esophageal sphicter into stomach.
    • 3) Stomach: stores the food you've eated, breaks down the food into liquidy mixture, and slowly empty the mixture into the small intestine. Releases a lot of acids that help break down food.
    • 4) Small Intestine: gets help from pancreas, liver, and gallbladder. Absoprtion occurs in the small intestine.
    • 5) Large Intestine: contains substances that can't be absorbed. First part is colon which absorbs water and produces feces (which contains all indigestible portions of food, intestinal cells, and lots of bacteria).
  3. What role do bacteria play in uor gastrointestinal tract?
    • 1) Bacteria in intestines feed on harmful bacteria, poisons, and other nasty substances that can't be digested.
    • 2) Bacteria also produce some vitamens and help regulate gut and immune function.
  4. Describe the composition of feces.
    Feces contains all indigestible portions of food, intestinal cells that are sloughed off during digestive process, and about 30-50% of bacteria.
  5. What happens when someone chokes on their food?
    Choking is caused when the food goes down the trachea as oppose to the esophagus.
  6. 1) Describe lactose intolerance.
    2) What foods contain lactose?
    3) What happens when a person lactose intolerant tries to digest lactose?
    4) What are recommendations for someone who is lactose intolerant?
    • 1) Lactose intolerance is when a person can no longer produce sufficent lactase enzyme in order to digest lactose (carbs found in milk products). The undigested lactose stays in the intestines and gets attacked by bacteria which may lead to gas, cramps, bloating, and diarrhea.
    • 2) Lactose can be found in any milk products.
    • 3) Person may experience gas, cramps, bloating, and diarrhea.
    • 4) Person can either avoid lactose-containing products or purchase lactase enzyme at a pharmacy and take some when eating lactose-containing foods.
  7. 1) Describe Heartburn (dyspepsia). What happens during heartburn? What casues hearburn?
    2) How can you prevent heartburn?
    3) What's GERD?
    • 1) Heartburns occur when the stomach is too full and some of the acidic substances travel to the esophagus (which doesn't have much mucus protection).
    • 2) Key to avoiding heartburn is not over-filling your stomach by eating smaller meals.
    • 3) GERD is Gastro-Esophageal Reflux Disease which is when people suffer from heartburn regularly, i.e. two or more times a week.
  8. Describe the characteristics, cause, and prevention of the following digestive disorders:
    1) Diarrhea
    2) Constipation
    3) Irritable Bowel Syndrome
    4) Hemmrrhoids
    • 1) Diarrhea: refers to loose, watery stools. Diarrhea is caused by irritation in the intestinal lining which causes food to move too quicly and the colon doesn't have enough time to remove the fluid (often caused by bacteria, viruses, food intolerances, parasites, reaction to medications, intestinal diseases, bowel disorders, emotional stress). Eating lots of soluble fiber helps with Diarrhea.
    • 2) Constipation: constipation refers to dry, hard stools that may be painful to pass. It occurs when waste remains in colon for too long so that too much water is absorbed. To avoid constipation, one should go, when one needs to go. A person should also eat plenty of fiber and drink plenty of fluids.
    • 3) Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS): nerves and muscles in the large intestine are hyper-sensitive whi causes crampting, diarrhea, gas, pain. IBS can be caused by food, exercise, or emotional stress or menstrual periods. Eating Fiber reduces IBS symptoms.
    • 4) Hemorrhoids: when the small veins at the end of the rectum is swollen from trying to eliminate difficult stool (any pain or itching of the anus). Hemorrhoid symptoms are cured by creams and suppositories, but fiber, fluids, and regular excise are the long-term helpers.
  9. Why does flatulence occur?
    What can you do to minimize it?
    • Flatulence is the byproduct of the breaking down of undigested carbs by bacteria in the colon.
    • You can hold your gas in, but some of it generally leaks out. Holding it in may not caused long-term harmful effects.
Card Set
Nutrition Exam #2