a phrase consisting generally of a noun/pronoun and a modifying participle in the ablative case; loosly connected to the rest of the sentence, usually set off by commas, describing the conditions under which the action of the sentence occurs.
- ex. Roma visa, viri gaudebunt.
- Rome having been seen, the men were rejoicing.
typ. structure - noun fillers participle
- a passive verb form consisting of the gerundive (or future passive participle) and a form of sum
- the gerundive form agrees with the subject of sum in gender, number and case
- eg - haec femina laudanda est - this woman is to be praised
- used to convey necessary, obligatory or appropriate action
- id faciendum est - this has to be done
- id faciendum erat - this had to be done
- id faciendum erit - this will have to be done
dative of agent
the dative of agent is used (instead of the ablative of agent) with the passive periphrastic
- eg - hic liber mihi legendus erit -
- this book will have to be read by me
- i ought to/must/should read this book
Carthago, Carthaginis, f.
tale, story; play
fabula, fabulae, f.
imperator, imperatoris, m. (3rd d)
power to command, supreme power, authority, command, control
imperium, imperii, n. (2nd d)
perfugium, perfugii, n.
servus, servi, m. and serva, servae, f.
solacium, solacii, n.
vulnus, vulneris, n. (3rd d)
back, again; inseparable prefix
as, just as, when
ut, conj. + indic.
to take, receive, accept
accipio, accipere, accepi, acceptum (3)
to take out, except; take, rececive, capture
excipio, excipere, excepi, exceptum (3)
to take back, regain, admit, receive
recipio,recipere, recepi, receptum (3)
to strike, push; drive out, banish
pello, pellere, pepuli, pulsum (3)
to drive out, expel, banish
expello, expellere, expuli, expulsum (3)
to tell, report, narrate
narro, narrare, narravi, narratum (1)
to seek, look for, strive for; ask, inquire
quaero, quaerere, quaesivi, quasitum (3)
to laugh, laugh at,
rideo, ridere, risi, risum (2)