ANT Review 3

  1. Criteria of Stratification
    • Wealth: the accumulation of material resources or access to the means of producing these resources; can take different forms ($$$)
    • Power: the ability to control reources in one's own interest; can use money to influence ppl- media, politics
    • Prestige: social honor or respect within a society
  2. Egalitarian Societies
    • Societies that recognize a few differences in status, wealth, or power
    • Inequality is discouraged among foragers because they rely on one another for survival
  3. Rank Societies
    • Societies in which people have unequal access to prestige and status but not unequal access to wealth and power
    • Found in redistribution
    • Kinship-based prestige
  4. Stratified Societies
    • Societies characterized by considerable inequality in all forms of social rewards---pwr, wealth, prestige
    • All complex societies
    • Caste (ascribed social position, closed sys. of strat.) vs. Class (achieved social position, open sys. of strat.)
  5. Caste System in traditional India
    • 4 Varnas:
    • Brahmins (priests and scholars)
    • Kshatriyas (warriors)
    • Vaisyas (merchants)
    • Shudras (cultivators and servants)
    • (Untouchables (Dalits))
    • Sanskritization: upward social mobility; dress like Brahmins, become vegetarian, move to urban areas
  6. Social Class in the United States
    • Material basis of class: yacht, big house, fancy car
    • Social classes as subcultures: determined by income
    • Privileged class (CEO's) = 1%
    • Upper middle class (professionals) = 14%
    • Middle class (teachers) = 30%
    • Working class (factory wrkrs) = 30%
    • Working poor (service jobs) = 13%
    • Under class (unemployed) = 12%
  7. Explaining social stratification
    • The Functionalist Interpretation: soc. strat. exists b/c it contributes to the overall well-being of a society (teachers do a more important job than singers but are paid less)
    • The Conflict Theory Interpretation: soc. strat. results from the constant struggle for scarce goods and sevices btwn the bourgeoisie(those who own the means of production) and the proletariat(the wrking class who exchange their labor for wages); by Karl marx; greed? (gov't may need to close gap btwn the haves and the have nots)
  8. Racism
    • The belief that some races are superior to others.
    • Race: no biological differences btwn races; race is not scientific
    • IQ: intelligence as a mix of different faculties IQ test as culturally coded test; 1950's, Asian Americans scored the highest and African Americans scored the lowest
    • Social Darwinism: Spencer; survival of the fittest
  9. Ethnicity
    • Objective Aspect: the observable culture and shared symbols of a particular group (ex: head scarf; flag; language; food; clothing)
    • Subjective Aspect: the internal beliefs of the people regarding their shared ancestry (ex: share a history; have an emotional attachment)
  10. Patterns of Ethnic Relations
    • Pluralism: different ethnic groups co-exist (Little Italy)
    • Assimilation: cultural assimilation (take up beliefs and behaviors of a more dominant group); biological assimilation (inter-racial marriage)
    • Segregation: physical and social segregation (Jim Crow Laws)
    • Ehtnic Cleansing: remove certain ethnic groups
    • Genocide: the Holocaust- 6 mil; Yolanda- 5 mil
  11. Ethnic Relations in the USA
    • 3 Tiers
    • "Old Immigration" (1820-1880): Irish, Germans
    • "New Immigration" (1880-WWI): Eastern Europeans(Jews), Italians
    • The Newest Immigration (after the 1960's): all over, Latin America, Asians
    • Multiculturalism: language and culture classes allow for more understanding
  12. Differences of various political organizations
    • Uncentralized Political Organization
    • Band: a small group of people related by blood or marriage, who live together and are loosely associated with a territory in which they forage (use persuasion/negotiation; no institutionalized law; 30-50 ppl; food sharing; group more important than individual; informal)
    • Tribe: a range of kin-ordered groups that are politically integrated by some unifying factor and whose members share a common ancestry, identity, culture, and territory (no central gov't; informal; pan-tribal mechanism- bring ppl together)
    • Centralized Political Organizations
    • Chiefdom: a society with social ranking in which political integration is achieved through an office of centralized leadership called the Chief (mostly passed from father to son; rank society(social honor); pre-colonial Hawaii)
    • State: a hierarchical, centralized from of political organization in which a central gov't has a legal monopoly over the use of force (5,000-6,000 years ago)
  13. The Rise of State Systems
    • Voluntaristic Theory: ppl realized could bring more benefits; efficiency
    • Hydraulic Theory: small scale in favor of a large scale irrigation system
    • Coercive Theory: result of warfare; small group subjigated by bigger groups
  14. 2 Kinds Of Government
    • Government: an interrelated set of status roles that become seperate from other aspects of social organization, such as kinship
    • Autocracy: a from of government that is controlled by a leader who holds absolute power and denies population participation in decision making
    • Democracy: a type of political system that involves population participation in decision making (tendency to move to a democracy) most countries lean towards to Democracy in the modern world
  15. Informal Means of Social Control
    • Public Opinion: individualist (individuality) vs. collectivist cultures (group oriented)
    • Corporate Lineages: kinship groups whose members engage in daily activities together (regulate behavior- close knit community)
    • Supernatural Belief Systems: ancestry worship (Africa; China- believe ppl become spirits that can help or hurt); witch craft (a person's sickness/bad luck by someone who teaches witch craft)
    • Age Orginization: ppl of roughly the same age (age set) pass through different levels of society (age grade) together. Each ascending level, based on age, carries with it increased social status and rigidly defined roles
  16. Courts and Codified Legal System
    • Legitimate use of physical coercion: an effective deterrant
    • Allocation of official authority to privileged people: use law in a legitimate way
  17. Oaths vs. Ordeals
    • Oaths: the practice of having God bear witness to the truth of what a person says (formal); fear supernatural retribution
    • Ordeal: a painful and possibly life-threatening test innflicted on someone suspected of wrong doing; if they pass, he/she is innocent; ex) hand in boiling water-> blisters=guilty; supernatural beliefs
  18. Reasons of Warfare
    • Social Problems: internal-> frustrations of other group (outside groups)
    • Perceived Threats: ex) war on terror, Korean War
    • Political Motivations: ex) Spanish-American War; to further politically
    • Moral Objectives: war on terror, Civil War
  19. Other formal means of social control
    • Intermediaries: the murderer will hide in the home of the Leopard-skin Chief in the Nuer to stay safe; Chief can negotiate with both parties involved but doesn't actually have any power over the outcome or decision; act as mediator
    • Moots: informal hearings of disputes for the purpose of resolving conflict; ex) Kpelle, informal hearing in complaintees house- fault to both parties=minimal punishment; found in African societies; mostly domestic affairs
  20. The Yanomamo
    • Forging Alliances: trade, feasting, and marriage; social relationships
    • Violence and Warfare: Chagnon's explanation= lack of women (polygamy; practice of female infantcide); most violent culture; frequent fights over women; Harris believes they fight due to a lack of protein; Ferguson believes they fight from a desire to get metal tools from Europeans
  21. Function of Art
    • Emotional gratification: provide pleasure and happiness
    • Social Integration: bring people together
    • Social Control: media resources- right and wrong, criminal justice system intertwined
    • Preserving or Chanllenging the status quo: wealthy accumulate one of a kind art
  22. Visual Arts
    • Graphic Arts: forms of art that include painting and drawing on various surfaces
    • Plastic Arts: artistic expression that involves molding certain forms
    • Other Forms: architecture; weaving/embroidery (rugs); tailoring (tea brewing); tattooing (symbol of social status; shape; color)
  23. Verbal Arts
    • Folklore: unwritten verbal arts that can take a variety of forms
    • Myth: a sacred narrative that explains the fundamentals of human existance (Yanomamo-moonblood=men(warriors); fruit->woman->shared w/men)
    • Legend: a story about a memorable event or figure handed down by tradition and told as true but without historical evidence (Washington chopping down cherry tree)
    • Folk tales: stories from the past that are instructive, entertaining, and largely secular in nature (mundane life)
  24. Performing Arts
    • Music: ethnomusicology (what music means in a culture)
    • Dance: Intentional, rhythmic nonverbal body movements that are culturally patterned and have aesthetic value (capoeira-dance/acrobatics/martial arts developed by African slaves in Brazil)
    • Theatre: A type of enactment that seeks to entertain through conscious forms of acting, movement, and words related to dance, music, parades, competitive games and sports, and verbal art (Kathali from India; wear delicate clothes and makeup to expand characters)
  25. Religion vs. Worldview
    • Religion: a set of beliefs in supernatural beings and forces directed at helping people make sense of the world and solve important problems (not everyone has a religion; more related to supernatural)
    • Worldview: the collective body of ideas that members of a culture generally share concerning the ultimate shape and substance of their reality (everyone has this; main views to explain the world)
  26. Development of Religion
    • Tylor's Evolutionary model of religion
    • Animism: belief that people have souls or spirits in addition to physical, visible bodies (original form)
    • Polytheism: the belief in the existance of many Gods (souls take on power)
    • Monotheism: the belief in only one God (only 1 deity became the most powerful) ex) Christianity, Muslim
  27. Magic
    • Magic: a system of supernatural beliefs that involves the manipulation of supernatural forces for the purpose of intervening in a wide range of human activities and natural events; control supernatural forces
    • Wallace
    • Imitative magic: the belief that imitating an action in a religious ritual will cause the action to happen in the material world (make real actions) (voodoo doll)
    • Contagious magic: the belief that things once in contact with a person or object retain an invisible connection with that person or object (gather personal belongings; ex) autograph)
    • Magic (immediate problems, ex) sickness; manipulation of supernatural forces; individual endeavor; irregularity; a wide range of practitioners) vs. Religion (human existance; petition of supernatural pwrs, ex) prayers; group activity; specified time; officially recognized functionaries, ex) priest, nun)
  28. Witchcraft vs. Sorcery
    • Witchcraft: an inborn involuntary and often unconscious capacity to cause harm to other people; ex) Azande- bring harm, causes rich and deviants have a higher chance to be called a witch; anything bad is witchcraft; bring down gap between the rich and poor
    • Sorcery: the performance of certain magical rites for the intentional purpose of harming other people; use of potions and medicines
  29. Functions of Religion
    • Social Functions: social control (regulate behaviors, ancestor worship); conflict resolution (provides means to solve conflicts, reincarnation); reinforcement of group solidarity (people who share religion = "we" and "they", Judaism unites Jews)
    • Psychological Functions: cognitive/intellectual function (answer important questions); emotional function (seek comfort, confidence- have faith; reduce anxiety)
  30. 4 Forms of Religious Organization
    • Individualistic Cults: the least complex form of religous org. in which each person is his/her own religious specialists (do-it-yourself religion); vision quest- a ritual found among a # of Plains Indians cultures where in through visions ppl establish special relationships with spirits who provide them with knowledge, pwr, and protection; Religion among Ojibwa- focus on the relationship w/ "the grandfathers" (other than human beings, wisest, share power); Dreaming, fasting, and visions- they fast to make the visions quest stronger
    • Shamanistic: forms of religion in whoch part-time religious specialists called Shamans intervene with the deities on behalf of their clients; Shamans- part-time religious specialists who are thought to have supernatural power by virtue of birth, training, or inspiration (go into altered state of unconsciousness and travel to spirit world); Shamanistic Curing- the Grand Medicine Society Among the Ojibwa (a # of men and women to cure with plant or Earth); Tungus shamans as medical diagnosticians (enter spirit world to diagnose, not provide a cure)
    • Communal Cults: societies in which groups of ordinary people conduct religious ceremonies for the well-being of the total community; Rites of Passage- 3 phases = seperation (cut off from previous status), transition (circumcision), incorporation (people from entire community participate) (ex) funerals, weddings); Rites of Solidarity- ancestor worship (blessed with prosperity)
    • Ecclesiastical Cults: highly complex religious systems employing full-time priests; Priest- one who is formerly elected, appointed, or hired to a full-time religious office; Religion among the Aztecs- Aztec Gods; very stratified(chinampas= floating garden; ag. process caused them to grow); Priesthood as hierarchy (all kinds of priest serve all kinds of Gods; 1. creation 2. elements 3. warfare); human sacrifice and cannibalism (human blood-> sun diety to stay alive; body made into soup-> victims become divine as well as consumers); cannibalism due to lack of protein or population control
    • *see table
  31. Various Approaches to Globalization
    • Internationalization: cross-border exchange btwn nations (diplomatic relations with other countries)
    • Liberalization: deregulation, removing gov't imposed restrictions (garment imposed restrictions; visa; immigration limits; tarriffs;taxes)
    • Universalization: adopt similiar beliefs; goods; the world is becoming homogenous
    • Westernization: fuse together; spread of western values/beliefs
    • Deterritorialization/ Respatialization: reconfiguration of social geography with increased transplanetary connections between people (money, people, commodities, ideas, technologies,a nd media)
  32. Four Main Forces of Globalization
    • Rationalism: humans want to better themselves and experience more
    • Capitalism: max profit through foriegn markets and resources/labor extraction; P= S-C
    • Technological innovation: improved tech and infrastructure, more and more transactions ocurring
    • Regulation: if more money, people, and ideas, there needs to be an increased global cooperation to regualte this flow
  33. Modernization Theory (1950's)
    • Modernization as a universal process: just a matter of time before modernization; family tradition=bad
    • Preconditions for modernization: Entrepreneurship (western education); Capital (foreign aid); First (industrialized capitalist), Second (industrialized socialist), Third Worlds (pre-industrialized)
    • Criticisms: westerncentric; family traditions thought of as bad and a hinderence
  34. Dependence Theory (1950's-1960's)
    • Exploitation on underdeveloped countries by developed societies (imperialism): keeps countries underdeveloped
    • Solution= revolution from below: overthrow region from the above
    • Criticisms: if internal factors should be considered(resources, gov't); ex) South Korea- dependence on western world-> economy took off
  35. World System Theory (1970's)
    • Core, Semi-periphery, Periphery: core= industrialized countries, semi-periphery= developing countries, periphery= third world countries
    • A dynamic system: the sum total of a given people's beliefs, customs, knowledge and technology
    • Commodity Chain: a network of labor and production processes whose end result is a finished commodity (ex) dress- material from India, designed in the UK, made in China, and sold in the U.S)
    • Criticisms:concerned with economic activities (no political, social); trade is always exploited
  36. Cultural Changes
    • Internal Factors= Invention/Innovation: variation as basis of invention/innovation (no real abrupt change)
    • Externnal Factors= Diffusion: the spreading of a cultural trait (that is, material object, idea, or behavior pattern) from one society to another.
  37. Diffusion vs. Acculturation
    • Diffusion: The spreading of a cultural trait (that is, material object, idea, or behavior pattern) from one society to another
    • Acculturation: a specific form of cultural diffusion in which a subordinate culture adopts many of the cultural traits of a more powerful culture (colonization=unwillingly)
  38. Cultural Imperialism
    • The imposition of a foreign viewpoint or civilization on a people.
    • Achieved through media (Hollywood) and other means (McDonalds)
  39. Processes of long-term change
    • Intensification: food production; advanced farm tech
    • Specialization: a smaller portion of the set; increased level of division of labor
    • Centralization: ex) political organization (band, tribe, chiefdom, state); power becomes more and more centralized
    • Stratification and Inequality: more complex; higher social inequality
    • Settlement Nucleation: population growing leads to a cluster of people in certain areas
  40. Population Growth
    Demographic Transition: a rapid increase in a society's population with the onset of industrialization, followed by a leveling off the growth rate
  41. Native American Indians
    • can have casinos
    • traditional values corrupted
  42. The Ju' Hoansi
    • Sothern Africa
    • foragers; try to continue food sharing
    • 1) loss of territory->abandon foraging society
    • 2) HIV and AIDS, were isolated, now due to integration, HIV and AIDS are on the rise
    • 3) stresses- disrupt reciprocity-> men are alcoholics
  43. The Basseri
    • Southern Iran
    • Pastoralism
    • loosing territory- convert nomadic people; tent schools by gov't
    • use education to improve livestock
    • refuse help from the gov't
  44. The Yanomamo
    • Amazon
    • were isolated
    • 1969->Goldrush in northern Brazil-> lost land and brought outside diseases
  45. The Trobriand Islanders
    • New Guinea
    • don't practice foraging
    • tourists provide economy
    • few taught about the Kula ring
    • preserve identity
    • put on stage shows for tourists
Card Set
ANT Review 3
Final review