king of spain from 1520-1558
- challenged the teachings of the Church on the nature of penance,
- the authority of the pope and the usefulness of indulgences. They sparked a theological debate that would result in the Reformation.
Diet of Worms
- a general assembly of the estates of the Holy Roman Empire that took place in Worms.
- It is most memorable for addressing Martin Luther and the effects of the Protestant Reformation.
Huldrych Zwingli of Zurich
- The leader of the Protestant Reformation in Switzerland.
- His movement persecuted anabaptists.
- It effected Zurich in civil life as well as matters of state. It quickly spread through other parts of Switzerland.
Colloquy of Marburg, 1529
Philip I wanted to unite the protestant followrs of Luther and those of Zwingili in a way which was politically convenient for him by trying to find a median between the two groups
A french protestant who founded Calvinism. He rejected papal authority and is famous for his teachings and writings
Affair of the Placards, 1534
- an incident involving anti-Catholic posters which appeared in public places in Paris, France during the night of October 17, 1534.
- It marks the end of the conciliatory policies of Francis I, who had formerly attempted to protect the Protestants
was an early Reformation-era German pastor who was a rebel leader during the Peasants' War. Cf. Radical Reformation, Protestant reformers
German Peasant’s War
a massive rural uprising that threatened the entire social order in germany from 1520 to 1525
- was an Anabaptist religious leader from Friesland (today a province of The Netherlands).
- His followers became known as Mennonites. Cf. Protestant reformers.
New Testament into German, 1522
martin luther did this during his time in hiding believing the common people to be allowed to read the bible for themselves.
Jacques Lefevre d’Etaples
Translated the bible into french
inspired by Luther he translated the bible into english
higher school for boys were intended to prepare students for university study
- this was the most important religious order of Catholic Europe in the 16th century.
- they helped establish an excellent system of secondary education through their colleges
- famous for having been married six times, and ultimately breaking with Rome.
- He wielded perhaps the most untrammebled power of any English monarch, and brought about the Dissolution of the Monasteries, and the union of England and Wales
Defender of the Faith
This title was awarded to king henry VIII after writing the book "Defence of the Seven Sacraments" the the assistance of Thomas More.
Act of Supremacy, 1529
an Act of the Parliament of England under King Henry VIII of England declaring that he was 'the only supreme head on earth of the Church in England'
Juan Luis Vives
famous Spanish scholar and humanist
Catherine of Aragon
- queen consort of England as Henry VIII of England's first wife.
- Henry tried to have their twenty-four year marriage annulled in part because all their male heirs apparently died in childhood
one of King Henry VIII's loyal servants who was also an archbishop of Canterbury
Katharina von Bora
German Catholic nun who was an early convert to Protestantism. She later became the wife of Martin Luther, the leader of the Protestant Reformation, who often fondly called her "my Lord Katie."
Orlando de Lassus
- a Franco-Flemish composer of late Renaissance music.
- Today considered to be the chief representative of the mature polyphonic style of the Franco-Flemish School, and he was the most famous and influential musician in Europe at the end of the 16th century.
Pieruigi da Palestrina
he is rememberd for his sacred music, expecially for his polyphonies that accompanied the Mass, in which he reaffirmed Catholic tradion by using themese from Gregorian chants of mediecil times.
was a diplomat and was a very prominent Renaissance author
- a venitian painter who captured Charles V's life on canvas four times.
- He is known best for the portrait known as Gloria
Italian Renaissance painter, sculptor, architect, poet and engineer. Created famous works such as the David and the Sistine Chapel
- this Dynasty succeeded the Capetian Dynasty as rulers of France from 1328-1589.
- and based their claim to be ahead of Edward III of England and Jeanne de Navarre on a reintroduction of the Salic law
One of the ruling families of France which was at war with the Valois family.
Suleiman I "the Magnificent"
The Turkish sultan who lead the siege of vienna
Seige of Vienna
- was the first attempt of the Ottoman Empire,
- led by Sultan Suleiman I,
- to capture the city of Vienna
the personal banker for Charles V's grandfather Maximilian I
- This was the name of the French Protestants,
- more specifically French Calvinistic Protestants
league of Protestant princes in the Holy Roman Empire who vowed to defend each other’s territories in if Charles V were to attack
Peace of Augsburg, 1555
- was a treaty signed between Charles V, and the Schmalkaldic.
- It officially put a stop to the schmalkaldic wars.
- It allowed the princes to choose to be either Lutheran or catholic
Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis
- This was and agreement of Elizabeth I, Henry II, and Philip II of Spain.
- It was to decide territorial boarders.
- Henry’s daughter Elisabeth, it was also determined, was to marry Philip II
Council of Trent 1545-1563
- convened three times in the city of Trent due to the rise of the reformation movement.
- It was to interpret the catholic church’s doctrines regarding salvation, the sacraments, the biblical canon and creating a Mass that was to be used around the world
- the principal founder and first Superior General of the Society of Jesus, a religious order of the Catholic Church professing direct service to the Pope in terms of mission.
- Members of the order are called Jesuits
a pioneering Christian missionary and co-founder of the Society of Jesus (Jesuit Order).
- this was the holly bible authorized by the catholic church.
- It was written in Latin so that the common people were unable to read it.
- As people like Erasmus pointed out it contained many wrong translations
basic territorial unit of the catholic church
someone who does not believe in god
started by Martin Luther it was a sweeping movement to uproot church abuses and restore early Christian teachings
This is what Luther and his followers referred to their movement which emphasized its adherence to the Gospels
this was what the followers of Martin Luther were called until 1529 when German princes and city delegates lodged a formal protest against imperial authorities who had declared Luther's cause criminal
this was what the followers of Martin Luther called themselves after the princes of Germany had decided Luther's actions to be criminal
- These people were outraged by the abuse of power of the church and dreamed of ideal societies based on peace and morality.
- They also sought to realize the ethical ideals of the classical world
- this was a remission of sin by performing certain religious tasks such as "going on pilgrimage, attending mass, doing holly works, etc."
- However it is more liekly that this was merely organized by the church in order to make a greater profit
was a German friar who, tormented by his own religion, became the sokes person for his generation and his reform movement sparked explosive protests.
- This was a theory by John Calvin which stated that God had ordained every man, woman, and child to salvation or damnation, even before the creation of the world.
- Therefore, no matter what one did in life it would not effect God's plan.
- These people believed that only adults could believe and accept baptism and therefore the baptism of infants was invalid.
- They considered themselves to be true Christians unblemished by sin and did not support violence but preferred peace and salvation
- A Dutch scholar who was a representative of the Christian humanists.
- He dominated the humanist world of early sixteenth century Europe.
- He earned a reputation of being very dedicated to education reform.
- He was an English lawyer who also served loyally as a royal ambassador for king henry the VIII.
- He became lord chancellor.
- However, tiring of court life and henry’s control over the clergy he resigned.
- Among his more famous works is the book Utopia
- Written by Thomas More describes it describes an imaginary land which, was intended as a critique of his own society.
- This society was heaven compared to life in England as it was based on a system of equality
German Peasants War
- this was a massive rural uprising that threatened the entire social order of Germany.
- This eventually split the reform movement in the end the princes managed to defeat the peasants.
the founder of the Jesuits
Mexican ecclesiasticl Provincial Council
this council declared in Mexico that holy orders were not to be conferred on Indians, mestizos, and mulattoes, jews and people who had been sentenced by the Soanish Inquisitions
Conflicts that challenged the authority of the Church in Rome
1.merchant wealth challenged the Church’s view of usury
- 2.German and English nobility disliked Italian domination of the Church
- 3.The Church’s great political power and wealth caused conflict
- 4.Church corruption and the sale of indulgences were widespread and caused conflict
the practice of charging interest on loaned money
Pardons for penalties to be received in the afterlife due to sins committed during one’s life
how a person gets into heaven
- started the Lutheran Church
- salvation by faith alone
- bible is the ultimate religious authority
- nailed 95 theses to church door in protest of the selling of indulgencesstarted the Reformation and gave birth to the Protestant Church
- faith revealed by living a righteous life and having a good work ethic
- expanded the Protestant Movement to France and Geneva, Switzerlandstarted the Calvinist Church
Reformation in Germany
- princes in Northern Germany converted to
- Protestantism, ending authority of Pope in their lands
- Hapsburg family and the authority of the Holy Roman Empire continued to support the Catholic ChurchConflict between Protestants and Catholics resulted in devastating wars (like the 30 Years’ War)
Reformation in England
- Anglican Church became a national church throughout the British Isles under Elizabeth I
- The Reformation contributed to the rise of capitalism
Reformation in France
- Catholic monarchy granted Protestant Huguenots freedom of worship
- by the Edict of Nantes
- Cardinal Richelieu changed the focus of the 30 Years’ War from a religious to a political conflict