Exam #4 (Personality)

  1. What theory proposed by B. F. Skinner looks at how behavior is influenced by it's effects. (think reward and punishment)
    Radical Behaviorism
  2. What is an outcome stimulus that is presented contingent on a response and that has the effect of increasing the rate of responding
    Positive Reinforcer
  3. What is an outcome stimulus that ends when a response occurs; it can have the effect of increasing the rate of responding.
    Negative Reinforcer (withdrawal of something)
  4. What is a stiumulus that is contingent on a response and has the effect of decreasing the rate of responding?
    Punishment (an aversive stimulus)
  5. What is the reinforcement of successive approximations of a response to increase the frequency of a response that originally has a zero base rate
    • Shaping
    • The idea is to "ease" a subject toward a new behavior.
  6. What is the operant technique for teaching complex tasks to subjects whereby individuals steps are taught then gradually connected in sequence?
  7. What is a way of reducing the frequency of a behavior by simply not reinforcing it anymore?
  8. What is the theory in psychology that explains human behavior in terms of a person's internal mental state?
    • Mentalism
    • Skinner believed that psychology should move away from this belief and accept behaviorism.
  9. What device designed by B. F. Skinner created a controlled environment for measuring learning?
    Skinner Box
  10. What type of learning is it when a subject is taught to respond only when a certain environmental stimuli is present?
    Discrimination Learning
  11. What is it called when a stimuli that was not present during learning is responded to because it is mistaken to be the discriminative stimuli?
    • Generalization
    • (like when a dog barks whether or not the owner says "spit" or "speak")
  12. What is a reinforcement schedule where every response is reinforced
    Continuous Reinforcment Schedule
  13. What is a reinforcement schedule in which a reinforcement follows every "Nth" response. (Fr-15, every 15th response is reinforced)
    Fixed Ratio Schedule
  14. What is a reinforcement schedule in which a reinforcement follows on the average, every Nth response, but sometimes varies around a predetermined average.
    Variable Ratio Schedule
  15. What is a reinforcement schedule in which a reinforcement follows every certain amount of time as long as a response takes place in that span of time.
    Fixed Interval Schedule
  16. What is a reinforcement schedule that reinforces according to the time intervals that change from reinforcement to reinforcement? (Sometimes time span short in between reinforcements, sometimes long)
    Variable Interval Schedule
  17. What is the therapeutic approach of systematically applying learning principles to change behavior?
    Behavior Modification
  18. What is the prepeparatory step to behavior modification where behavior is carefully observed to identify the stimuli and reinforcements influencing behavior.
    Functional Analysis
  19. What was the novel in which Skinner imagined a utopian community based on learning principles?
    Walden Two
  20. What do you know about Arthur Staats?
    • Born in New York in 1924
    • Proposed Psychological Behaviorism (applying personality theory to radical behaviorism)
    • Jewish lineage
    • Family of Radical Thinkers
    • Served in the navy for WWII
    • Attended UCLA and received his doctorate in clinical psychology
  21. What behavior theory includes traditional personality concerns as well as behavioral concerns?
    Psychology Behaviorism
  22. What are learned behaviors (three categories proposed by Staats) that are fundamental to later learning more complex behaviors? What are the three categories?
    Basic Behavioral Repetoires

    • Language-Cognitive
    • Emotional-Motivational
    • Sensory-Motor
  23. What category of basic behavioral repetoires focuses on learned emotional responses, and how humans learn to attach emotions to behavior?
  24. What category of basic behavior repetoires focuses on learning how to control one's body skillfully?
  25. What category of basic behavioral repetoires focuses on being able to visualize read and heard words in order to build upon verbal reasoning?
  26. What is the method of measuring personality traits by assessing the frequency of prototypical behavior?
    Act Frequency Approach
  27. What do you know about Walter Mischel?
    • Born in Vienna, Austria in 1930
    • Family fled Europe to New York during WWII
    • Taught and did Research at Stanford University
  28. What are cognitive factors within a person that are less global than traits and which influence how an individual adapts to the environment?
    • Cognitive Person Variables
    • Derived from cognition and social learning
  29. What are trait terms that people use to describe themselves and other people?
    Personal Constructs
  30. What type of expectancy focuses on how events will develop in the world, i.e., what events will follow other environmental stimuli?
    Stimulus-Outcome Expectancies
  31. What psychological concept recognizes that the person, the environment, and behavior all influence one another?
    Reciprocal Determinism
  32. What is the ability to forego immediate pleasures for the sake of reaching larger, more distant rewards?
    Delay of Gratification
  33. What type of expectancy focuses on what will happen if a person behaves in a particular way?
    Behavior-Outcome Expectancy
  34. What type of expectancy focuses on the subjective belief about what a person will be able to do?
    Self-Efficacy Expectancy
  35. What is the term used to describe how much an outcome is valued by an individual?
    Subjective Stimulus Value
  36. What are internal mechanisms people use as ways control their behavior in order to work on complicated behaviors?
    Self-Regulatory Systems
  37. What do you know about Albert Bandura?
    • Born in Alberta, Canada in 1925
    • Doctorate in clinical psychology from the University of Iowa
    • President of APA in 1974
    • Professor at Standford University which is where he has remained his entire career.
  38. What is the belief that one can organize and execute a given course of action required to deal with a prospective situation?
  39. What is the process of remembering what a model has done? (usually requires imaginative representation and verbal coding)
    Retention Process
  40. What is the hormone thought to promote caretaking and cuddling?
    Oxytocin? (thought to be released during breast-feeding and sexual intercourse)
  41. Which theory observes the biological influences of natural selection to understanding human psychology including personality?
    Evolutionary Psychology
  42. What is the biologically based foundation of personality including such characteristic patterns of behavior as emotionality, activity, and sociability
  43. What is the statistic that shows what proportion of the variability of a trait in a particular population is associated with genetic variability?
  44. What is the capacity to understand the thoughts and intentions of others?
    Theory of Mind
  45. What temperament type is shy and unassertive around strangers, and is proposed to have high levesl of norepinephrine and an activation of the amygdala?
    Inhibited Type
  46. What temperament type is outgoing and low in fear, proposed to have lower sympathetic nervous system activity
    Uninhibited Type
  47. What is the inherited genetic profile of an individual?
    Their Genotype
  48. What are the developed characteristics that can be observed in an individual, based on both genetic and environmental influences?
  49. What do you know about Hans Eysenck?
    • Built biological perspective from Pavlov's analysis of strong and weak nervous systems
    • Developed "PEN" Theory
  50. According to Eysencks "PEN" theory: What is the tolerance for high levels of stimulation stemming from a strong nervous sytem that inhibits incoming stimulation, leading to sociability?
  51. According to Eysencks "PEN" theory: What is the tendency toward high levels of emotional arousal?
  52. According to Eysencks "PEN" theory: What is the factor related to nonconformity or social deviance?
Card Set
Exam #4 (Personality)
Flashcards for Exam 4 of psych of personality