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  1. What is cystitis?
    inflammation of the bladder
  2. What are the clinical signs of cystitis?
    • pollakiuria
    • dysuria
    • hematuria
  3. What is pollakiuria?
    abnormal frequent urination
  4. Cystitis may or may not involve infection for dogs? Cats?
    • dogs: yes
    • cats: no
  5. What are uroliths?
    urine rocks
  6. What are uroliths related to?
    • pH
    • diet
  7. Once formed, uroliths can...
    • pass out of the urinary tract
    • dissolve
    • remain in the bladder
    • obstruct the urethra
  8. What happens when the urethra gets obstructed?
    • pressure backs up to the kidneys
    • rapid onset of azotemia
    • hyperkalemia
    • death will follow unless obstruction is relieved
  9. urolithes = _____ = _____
    urolithes = calculi = stones
  10. Where can there be stones?
    • kidney
    • ureter
    • bladder
    • urethra
  11. What is more common then stones?
  12. What is often seen if stones are present?
  13. What are the different types of stones seen?
    • struvite
    • calcium oxalate
    • urate (uric acid)
    • cystine
    • silica
  14. What is the most common urolith in dogs?
  15. What are struvite stones?
    magnesium ammonium phosphate
  16. What type of urine causes struvite urolithiasis?
  17. What else is common when a dog has struvite urolithiasis?
    bacterial infection
  18. How do we diagnose struvite urolithiasis?
    • radiography (radiodense)
    • urinalysis (coffin lid crystals, pH > 7)
  19. How do we treat struvite urolithiasis?
    • control the infection
    • acidify urine
    • calculolytic diet (high salt, low phosphorus, low magnesium, low protein, contain urinary acidifier)
    • surgery
  20. Which tyes of dogs are calcium oxalate stones more common in?
    toy breeds
  21. What type of urine forms calcium oxalate stones?
    acid urine
  22. How do we diagnose calcium oxalate stones?
    • radiography (radiodense)
    • urinalysis (square 3-D crystals with "x", crystals not always in urine)
  23. How do we treat calcium oxalate stones?
    • cystotomy
    • diets won't help dissolve stones, but will help prevent them
  24. Which type of dogs get urate urolithiasis?
  25. Why do dalmations get urate urolithiasis?
    • can't metabolize uric acid well
    • excrete large amounts in acidic urine
  26. What do urate stones look like?
    • most small and spherical
    • often radiolucent
  27. How do we prevent urate stones?
    • diet: low protein, alkaline-producing diet with no extra salt
    • Allopurinol: inhibits production of uric acid
    • control urinary tract infection
    • increase urine volume
  28. Are cystine stones common?
  29. Can cystine stones be reabsorbed?
  30. Why kind of pH causes cystine stones?
  31. Where are cystine stones most commonly found?
    in male urethra
  32. Can we tell what uroliths are just by looking at them?
  33. What does FLUTD stand for?
    feline lower urinary tract disease
  34. What percent of the cat population get FLUTD?
  35. What factors cause FLUTD?
    • diet
    • water consumption
    • stress
  36. How do diet and water consumption relate to cats getting FLUTD?
    • pH of urine is related to diet
    • mineral content (magnesium causes struvite, calcium causes calcium oxalate)
    • water content (concentrated urine causes crystals)
  37. Is FLUTD related to bacteria?
    no, 95% of cases have no bacterial component
  38. What are some signs of FLUTD?
    • dysuria
    • pollakiuria
    • hematuria
    • crystalluria
  39. How do we diagnose a cat with FLUTD?
    • history
    • urinalysis (pH of urine, crystals, presence of blood or WBC's, casts)
    • radiography
  40. How do we treat obstructed FLUTD?
    • SQ fluids
    • increase water intake (add water to canned food)
    • limit stress
    • change diet
  41. What kinds of cats get obstructive FLUTD?
    male cats
  42. Do indoor cats or outdoor cats get obstructive FLUTD more frequently?
  43. Is obstructive FLUTD an emergency?
  44. What do we do when a cat comes in with a possible obstructive FLUTD?
    • bloodwork: azotemia, hyperkalemia
    • urinalysis
    • radiography
    • anesthesia
    • relieve obstruction
Card Set
Lab Tech
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