1. Aesthetic
    brach of philosophy that studies all forms of art
  2. Alienated Life
    unconcious, unspontaneous, and unfulfilled life; deprived of fundamental conditions necessary for self-actualization
  3. Alienation
    according to Marx, condition of workers separated from the products of their labor; primarily an objective state, but can also refer to not feeling "at one" with the product of labor
  4. Altruism
    Latin: "other"

    the capacity to promote the welfare of others; opposed to egoism
  5. Analytic Philosophy
    Influential nonliterary appraoch to philosophy that stresses logic, testability, precision, and clarity with antecedents in an anglophile tradition that includes Locke, Hume,Russel, and Wittgenstein

    contends that close logical and linguistic analyses are thought to be the only proper methods for sorting out philosphical confusions; commonly contrasted with continental philosophy
  6. Anti-Philosopher
    a radical critic of the techniques and doctrines of modern science and philosophy

    one who disputes the possibility of objectivity and universality and rejects the absolue authority of reason; also rejects the possibility of a "neutral stance or perspectiveless perspective"
  7. A Posteriori Knowledge
    empirical knowledge derived from sense experience and not regarded as universal because the conditions under which it is acquired change, perceivers vary, and factual relationships change
  8. A Priori Knowledge
    Derived from reason without reference to sense experience. Example: all triangles contain 180 degrees and all events have a cause
  9. Argument from Gradation
    argument for the existence of God based on the idea that being progresses from inanimate objects to increasingly complex animated creatures, culminating in a qualitatively unique God;

    Aristotelian argument that forms the basis for the 1st of Thomas Aquinas' Five ways
  10. Argument from Motion
    attempt to prove the existence of God based on the reasoning that to avoid an infinite regress, there must be an Unmoved Mover capable of imparting motion to all other things;

    Aristotelian argument that forms the basis for the first of Thomas Aquinas' Five Ways
  11. Argument from Necessity
    argument for the existence of God based on the idea that if nothing had ever existed, nothing would always exist, therefore there is something whose existance is necessary (an eternal something)

    Aristotelian argument that forms the basis for the third of Aquinas' Five Ways
  12. Authenticity
    Subjective condition of an individual living honestly and courageously in the moment, refusing to make excuses, and not relying on groups or instutions for meaning and purpose; for Heidegger, living in and with the "understanding" of our death.
  13. Axiology
    Branch of philosophy that studies values in general
  14. Bourgeisie
    all those who do not produce anything, yet who own and control the means of production
  15. Bundle Theory of the Self
    Humean theory that there is no fixed self, but that the self is merely a "bundle of perceptions"; a self is merely a habitual way of discussing cetain perceptions
  16. Capitalism
    economic system in which the means of production and distribution are all/mostly privately owned and operated for profit under fully competitive conditions; tends to be accompanied by concentration of wealth and growth of great corporations
  17. Categorical Imperative
    according to Kant, a command that is universally binding on all rational creatures

    Ultimate foundation of all moral law: "Act as if the maxim of thy action were to become a universal law of nature"
  18. cogito, ergo sum
    Latin: I think, therefore I am
  19. Coherence Theory of Truth
    truth test in which new or unclear ideas are evaluated in terms of rational/logical consisteny and in relation to already established truths
  20. Continental Philosophy
    Broad term referring to philosophies associated with European philosophers (Kant, Hegel, Kierkegaard, Marx, Nietzche, Husserl, Heidegger) not a school of philosophy or single way of doing philosophy

    Includes: phenomenology, existentialism, Deconstructionism; commonly contrasted with analytic philosophy
  21. Conversion
    for Heidegger: dialogue; progressively attuned communication about Being; lanuage function contrasted with idle talk
  22. Correspondence (Copy/Representation) Theory of Truth
    truth test that holds that the idea (or belief or thought) is true if whatever it refers to actually exists (corresponds to a fact)
  23. Cosmological Argument
    Argument for the existence of God that because it is impossible for any natural thing to be the complete and sufficient source of its own existence, there must be an Uncaused Cause capable of imparting existence to all other things

    Aristotelian argument that forms the basis for the second of Aquinas' Five Ways
  24. Critical Philosophy
    Kant's term for his effort to assess the nature and limits of "pure reason", unadulterated by experience, in order to identify the actual relationship of the mind to knowledge
  25. Cynic
    individual who lives an austere, unconventional life based on Cynic doctrine
  26. Cynicism
    philosophy based on the belief that the very essence of civilization is corrupt and that it destroys individuals by making them soft and subject to the whims of fortune
  27. Deconstruction (philosophical)
    a kind of close textual analysis focused on uncovering and overcoming "privileges" hidden in philosophic arguments and theories by taking a text apart. Questions whether any text can have any definite meaning
  28. Determinism
    belief that everything that happens must happen exactly the way it does because all matter is governed by cause and effect and follows laws of nature
  29. Dialectic (Hegelian)
    according to Hegel, a 3-step pattern in which an original idea (thesis) struggles with a contrary idea (antithesis) to produce a new synthesis that combines elements of both
  30. Dialectic Process (Helegian)
    internally governed evolutionary cycle in which progress occurs as the result of a struggle between 2 opposing conditions
  31. Dualism
    any philosophical position that divides existence into 2 completely distinct, independent, unique substances
  32. Dualism (Epistemological)
    the view that knowing consists of 2 distinct aspects: the knower and the known
  33. Economic
    as used by Marx, the complete array of social relationships and arrangements that constitutes a particular social order
  34. Efficient Cause
    the triggering cause that initiates activity; the substance by which a change is brought about; close to the contemporary meaning of cause

    3rd of Aristotle's 4 causes
  35. Egoism
    belief that self-interest is or ought to be the basis of all delliberate action
  36. Egocentric Predicament
    problem generated by epistemological dualism: if all knowledge comes in the form of my own ideas, how can I verify the existence of anything external to them
  37. Empirical Criterion of Meaning
    meaningful ideas are those that can be traced back to sense experience (impressions); beliefs that cannot be reduced to sense experience are not "ideas" at all, but meaningless utterances
  38. Empiricism
    belief that all knowledge is ultimately derived from the senses (experience) and that all ideas can be traced to sense data
  39. esse est percipi
    Latin: "to be is to be perceived" - Berkeley
  40. Existentialism
    philosophy that emphasizes fundamental questions of meaning and choice as they affect existing individuals (choice, freedom, identity, alienation, inauthenticity, despair, and awareness of our own mortality
  41. Forces of Production
    in philosophical Marxism, factories, equipment, technology, knowledge, and skill; a part of the substructure of society
  42. Forlornness
    Jean-Paul Sartre's term for his belief that we face life alone, w/o God, w/o certainty, w/ only absolute freedom and the responsibility that accompanies it
  43. Hedonism
    Greek: pleasure

    philosophy that asserts that pleasure = good and pain = bad
  44. Hedonism (Cyrenaic)
    philosophy that advocates the unreflective pursuit of intense, immediate pleasure; makes no qualitative distinctions among pleasures
  45. Hedonism (ethical)
    belief that although it is possible to deliberately avoid pleasure or choose pain, it is morally wrong to do so
  46. Hedonism (psychological)
    belief that all decisions are based on considerations of pleasure and pain, it is psychologically impossible for human beings to do otherwise
  47. Hypothetical Imperatives
    propositions that tell us what to do under specific, variable conditions
  48. Idealism (Absolute/Hegelian)
    a monistic philosophy that is based on an all-encompassing Absolute Spirit that is self-actualizing into perfection; Reality is independent of anyone's mind
  49. Idealism (Immaterialism)
    belief that only ideas (mental states) exist; the material world is a fiction - it does not exist
  50. Idealism (Kantian/Transcendental); Kantian Formalism
    theory that knowledge is the result of the interaction between the mind and sensation and is structured by regulative ideas (categories)
  51. Idle Talk
    Heidegger's term for superficial "they talk": chatter, gossip, and merely verbal understanding: contrasted with conversation or dialogue
  52. Immoral
    morally wrong/bad/not right; a moral value judgment or prescriptive claim
  53. Inauthenticity
    condition that results when the nature and needs of the individual are ignored, denied, and obscured or sacrificed for institutions, abstractions, or groups
  54. Inductive Reasoning
    reasoning pattern that proceeds from the particular to the general and results in generalized rules/principles established with degrees of probability
  55. Innate Ideas (a priori ideas)
    truths that are not derived from observation or experiment; characterized as being certain, deductive, universally true, and independent of all experience
  56. Knowledge (Practical)
    the skills needed to do things like play the piano, use a band saw, remove a tumor, bake a cake.
  57. Knowledge (Theoretical)
    the accurate compilation and assessment of factual and systematic relationships
  58. Law of Contradiction
    rule of inference that says no statement can be both true and false at the same time and under the same conditions
  59. Logic
    branch of philosophy that studies the rules of correct reasoning
  60. Logos (Stoic)
    according to Stoic doctrine, World Reason (cosmic mind), God, Zeus, Nature, Providence, Cosmic Meaning, and Fate; force that governs the universe
  61. Master Morality
    in Nietzschean philosophy, the aesthetic honor code of the overman; morality that looks only to the authentic individual (overman) for values that transcend the slave's good-evil dichotomy with glorious - degrading, good - evil, honorable - dishonorable, etc . . . "good" = "noble" and "evil" - "vulgar"
  62. Materialism (Behaviorism, Mechanism, Reductionism)
    belief that everything is composed of matter (and energy) and can be explained by physical laws, that all human activity can be understood as the natural behavior of matter according to mechanical laws, and that thnking is merely a complex form of behaving: the body is a fleshy machine
  63. Materialism (Marxian)
    form of social determinism based on a reciprocal relationship between individuals and their environment; distinguished from strict materialism and hard determinism
  64. Means of Production
    In philosophical Marxism, the means of production include natural resources such as water, coal, land, etc...; a part of the substructure of society
  65. Methodic Doubt
    Cartesian strategy of deliberately doubting everything it is possible to doubt in the least degree so that what remains will be known with absolute certainty
  66. Modernity
    the historical period of 19th and 20th century nationstates and a corresponding set of cultural conditions and beliefs dominated by enlightenment ideals
  67. Moral
    Latin (moralis): custom, manner, conduct

    refers to what people consider good/bad, right/wrong
  68. Moralistic
    consists of expressing commonplace moral sentiments that conflict with one's behavior and equating moral sentimentality with virtuous living; a form of hypocrisy that resembles a reaction formation
  69. Mystification
    use of cloudy abstractions to create elaborate metaphysical systems that distract us from concrete material reality
  70. Nietzschean Perspectivism
    the contention that every view is only one among many possible interpretations
  71. Nihilism
    Latin: nothing

    belief that the universe lacks meaning and purpose
  72. Nonmoral (amoral)
    Not pertaining to moral; a value-neutral descriptive claim or classification
  73. Noumenal Reality
    (Objective Reality) Kant's term for reality as it is, independent of our perceptions
  74. Ontological Argument
    an attempt to prove the existence of God either by referring to the meaning of the word God when it is understood a certain way or by referring to the purportedly unique quality of the concept of God
  75. Original Position
    John Rawls' imaginary setting in which we can identify the fundamental principles of justice from an objective, impartial perspective, as rational agents, rather than as "interested parties"
  76. Overman
    Nietzsche's "higher type," aa more-than-human being that will emerge only by overcoming the false idols of conventional morality and religion
  77. Pessimism
    Schopenhaur's theory that life is disappointing and that for every satisfied desire, new desires emerge; our only hope is detatchment and withdrawl
  78. Phenomenal Reality
    Kant's term for the world as we experience it
  79. Phenomenology
    method of philosophical analysis (1st developed by Husserl) that uses purely descriptive statements to provide a "descriptive analysis" of conciousness in all its forms; focuses on concrete "experienced facts" rather than abstractions in order to reveal the "essence" of human conciousness
  80. Philosophical Advocate
    Philosopher whose work identifies, clarifies, and actively opposes a perceived injustice; they give philosophical credence to personal experience based on gender, ethnic background, or social status
  81. Philosophy (Political)
    branch of philosophy concerned with the state and issues of sovereignty
  82. Philosophy (Social)
    branch of philosophy concerned with social institutions and relations
  83. Pluralism
    the belief that there exist many realities or substances
  84. Political Imperative (Principle of Dignity)
    Kant's formulation of the categorical imperative based on the concept of dignity: "Act in such a way tht you always treat humanity, whether in your own person or in the person of another, never simply as a means but always at the same time as an end."
  85. Pragmatic Paradox
    Pragmatism works ony if we believe that our ideas are true acording to nonpragatic criteria
  86. Primary Qualities
    According to Locke, objective sensible qualities that exist independently of any perceiver (i.e. shape, size, location, motion)
  87. Principle of Sufficient Reason
    principle that nothing happens without a reason; consequently, no adequate theory or explanation can contain any brute, crude, unexplained facts.
  88. Principles of Reason (Rules of Inference)
    principles (i.e. Laws of Contradiction) that define the limits of rationality by their very structure and that cannot be rationally refuted since we rely on them in order to reason
  89. Problem of Evil
    if God can prevent the suffering of the innocent, yet chooses not to, He is not good. If God chooses to prevent the suffering, but cannot, He is not omnipotent. If God cannot recognize the suffering of the innocent, He is not wise
  90. Proletariat
    All those whose labor produces goods and provides essentiaal services, yet who do not own the means of production
  91. Public Philosopher
    compelling writer or speaker whose philosophical positions are expressed in ways accessible to a broad audience; they tap into - identify - vital philosophical issues of the day
  92. Rationalism
    an epistemological position in which reason is said to be the primary source of all knowledge, superior to sense evidence. Only reason can distinguish reality from illusion and give meaning to experience
  93. Realism
    the belief that there exisits an independent, objective world of things, facts, and states of affairs that are accessible to us
  94. Reason (Practical)
    according to Kant, moral function of reason that produces religious feelings and intuitions based on knowledge of moral conduct
  95. Reason (Theoretical)
    according to Kant, a function of reason confined to the emperical, phenomenal world
  96. Regulative Ideas (Transcendental Ideas)
    in Kantian philosophy, a special class of transcendental ideas that bridges the gap between the phenomenal and noumenal worlds: the ideas of self, cosmos (totality), and God
  97. Relationships of Production
    in philosophical Marxism, relationship consisting of who does what, who owns what, and how this affects members of both groups; a part of the substructure of society
  98. Scholasticism
    Christian philosophy dominating medieval Europe that stressed logical and linguistic analysis of texts and arguments in order to produce a systematic statement and defense of Christian beliefs
  99. Secondary Qualities
    according to Locke, subjective qualities whose existence depends on a perceiver: i.e. color, sound, taste, texture
  100. Scientism
    the belief that the methods of the natural sciences apply to all areas of knowledge, and that only they can overcome the vagaries of prescientific superstition, religion, and metaphysics
  101. Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
    a belief that affects events in such a way that it causes itself to come true
  102. Skeptic
    Greek: "to consider or examine"

    a person who demands clear, observable, undoubtable evidence before accepting any knowledge claim as true
  103. Slave Morality
    in Nietzschean philosophy, a distortion of the will to power in which the characteristics of the inferior type (underman) are praised as virtues, and the characteristics of the superior type (overman) are condemned as arrogance and coldheartedness; a morality of inhibition, equality, restrictive duties, and "bad conscience"
  104. Sophistry
    the teachings and practices of the original Sophists; modern usage refers to subtle, plausible, but fallacious reasoning used to persuade rather than discover truth
  105. Species - Life
    fully human life lived productively and consciously; not alienated
  106. Stoic
    individual who attempts to live according to Stoic doctrine
  107. Substructure of Society
    in philosophical Marxism, the material substructure or base of society determines the nature of all social relationships, as well as religions, art, philosophies, literature, science, and government
  108. Surplus Value
    term Marxs used to refer to the capital accumulated by owners; the result of keeping prices higher than the costs of production at the expense of workers
  109. tabula rasa
    Latin: "clean slate"

    Locke: to challenge the possiblity of innate ideas by characterizing the mind at birth as a blank tablet or clean slate
  110. Teleological Argument (Argument from Design)
    argument for the existence of God claims that the universe manifests order and purpose that can only be the result of a conscious intelligence (God); Aristotelian argument that forms the basis for the 5th of Aquinas' Five Ways and the basis of William Paley's watchmaker argument
  111. the "they"
    Heidegger's name for being-with-another; an inauthentic way of avoiding anxiety by allowing an "aggregate average" to determine how we live and think
  112. Theology
    Greek: Study of God

    talking about God or the study/science of God
  113. Thought Experiment
    a way of using our imaginations to test a hypothesis; we think rather than field-test a hypothesis
  114. Tragic Optimism
    according to Nietzsche, the sense of joy and vitality that accompanies the superior individual's clear-sighted imposition of his own freely chosen values on a meaningless world
  115. Tyranny
    form of government in which all power rests in a single individual, known as the tyrant
  116. Underman
    Nietzsche's term for the type of person who cannot face being alone in a godless universe, an inferior individual seeking safety and identity in a group or from another, characterized by resentment and hypocrisy
  117. Principle of Utility
    always act to promote the greatest happiness for the greatest number
  118. Veil of Ignorance
    John Rawls' problem solving device that prevents us from knowing our social status, what property we own, what we like/don't like, how intelligent we are, what our talents and strengths are, etc . . .
  119. Will to Power
    Nietzsche's term for what he thought is a universal desire to control others and impose our values on them
  120. Chun Tzu
    philosopher (sage)
  121. What does it mean to be a person? - Lao Tzu
    Self Direction (will/intention)

    Self Reflection (thought)

    Identity (uniqueness)
  122. Conrtactual Relationships
    Parent - Child

    Husband - Wife

    Older Sibling - Younger Sibling

    Older Friends - Younger Friends

    Ruler - the Ruled
  123. Meditation
    gain bigger perspective: listening to what otherwise cannot be "heard"
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