Most important family of receptors functioning in attachment
macromolecular complex formed by two, usually non-covalently bound, macromolecules like proteins or nucleic acids. It is a quaternary structure of a protein.
Adhere cells to substratum and transmit signals from environment to cell interior
Large extracellular domains have Mg+ or Ca+ -dependent ligand-binding sites specific for arg-gly-asp (RGD) sequences
IF YOU WANT TO INHIBIT INTEGRINS WHAT COULD YOU USE?
RGD containing drugs or toxins inhibit normal integrin function.
Integrin extracellular protein receptor domains..NAME 3 METALS.
Ca2+, Mg2+, and/or Mn2+.
NOTICE ALL 2+ METALS
WHEN IS AN INTEGRIN ACTIVE?
WHEN IT'S INACTIVE, IT'S KNOWN AS BENT LEG CONFORMATION.
NAME A PROTEIN TIN THE CELL THAT BINDS TO A INTEGRIN AND CHANGES IT CONFORMATION. WHERE SPECIFICALLY DOES IT BIND TO?
TALIN. BIND TO THE BETA. NOTICE HOW WIDE IT OPENS.
glycoprotein of the extracellular matrix that binds to membrane-spanning receptor proteins called integrins. In addition to integrins, fibronectin also binds extracellular matrix components such as collagen, fibrin and heparan sulfate proteoglycans (e.g. syndecans).Fibronectin exists as a protein dimer, consisting of two nearly identical monomers linked by a pair of disulfide bonds.
Blood clots form when platelets adhere to one another through ________ bridges that bind platelet ________.
fibronectin bridges & platelet intergrin.
A PATIENT HAS A HIGH CLOT RISK. WHAT CAN BE ONE SOLUTION?
Non-peptide analogs used to treat patients with high clot risk.
____ _____ cells form stable attachments on contact with substrates, flatten over time
Dynamic structures that can be rapidly disassembled if mitosis is triggered
Integrin heavy clusters at attachment points
Start as ball and then flatten out. LEGS ATTACHED, CENTER ISN'T.
IF YOU HAVE A LARGE AMOUNT OF VINVULIN IN THE CELL WHAT WILL BIND ON THE OUTSIDE?
WHAT ABOUT TALIN?
BOTH ATTACH TO B SUBUNIT.
Focal adhesions are sites where cells adhere to their substratum
WHERE IS THE ACTIN? WHERE ARE THE INTEGRNS?
In vivo tightest cell-substrate connections are mediated by __________.
IN VIVO...IN LIVING
HOW DO EPITHELIAL CELLS ATTACH TO BASEMENT MEMBRANES?
WHAT THE FUCK IS PAXILLIN?
Interactions Between Cells:___________ bind to specific carbohydrates on surfaces of cells
____________ mediate interactions between circulating leukocytes and vessel walls
NAME THE 3 TYPES OF SELECTINS
E (endothelial cells), P (platelets) and L (Leucocytes)
SELECTINS DEPEND ON WHAT MINERIAL FOR BINDING?
If you dissociate embyonic cells and remix them, they sort with like types...HOW DOES THIS HAPPEN?
Surface interactions allow for this. Selectins, IgSF, Integrins and Cadherins contribute to organization patterns
GIVE AN EXAMPLE OF A SELECTIN ON RBC
THE A,B,O ANTIGENS.
WHAT THE HELL DOES " OLIGO-" MEAN?
SHORT. HAVING ONLY A FEW.
EX: An oligonucleotide (from Greek prefix oligo-, "having few, having little") is a short nucleic acid polymer, typically with fifty or fewer bases.
WHAT COULD BE THE 2 MAIN WAY TO HAVE A MANFUNCTION IN A SELECTIN?
CHANGE ITS SHAPE, COULD BIND ANYMORE.
CHANGE CAROXYL/HYDROXYL GROUPS ON BINDING SUGARS.
immumoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) NAME 3 AND THEIR FUNCTION
NCAM (neural), VCAM (vascular), and L1
IgSF proteins mediate adhesion between non-immune cells directly or through integrins.
ALSO Found in invertebrates (no immune system).
Most immumoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) proteins are involved in immunity...WHAT 2 THINGS DO THEY FUNCTION LIKE?
Antibody and T-cell receptor function
word, phrase, number, or other sequence of units that may be read the same way in either direction
THE Ig DOMAINS OF THE IgSF ARE MADE OF WHAT?
Made of b-sheets packed face to face
THE IgSF VCAM IS FOUND WHERE?
WHAT IS ONE WAY THE IgSF CELLS DON'T STICK TO GOOD HEALTHY CELLS?
MOST ARE CALCIUM INDEPENDANT CELL-CELL ADHESIONS. SPECIFICY WITH CALCIUM.
WHAT IS AT THE END OF EACH OF THE END OF THE Ig DOMAINS?
Glycoproteins mediating Ca+ -dependent cell adhesion that join cells of similar type.
Catenins tether the cadherins to the cytoskeleton and transmit info to the cytoplasm.
Associate laterally forming dimers bridged by Ca+ in a “cell adhesion zipper”
CADHERINS DEAL WITH WHAT MINERAL
WHAT DO CADHERINS DO?
FUNCTION IS CELL ADHESION. HELP CELLS FORM BONDS AND CONSTRUCT A TISSUE FORMATION.
________ tether the cadherins to the cytoskeleton and transmit info to the cytoplasm
_________ associate laterally forming dimers bridged by Ca+ in a “cell adhesion zipper."
Cadherins in epithelial-mesenchymal transformation, WHAT'S THE FUNCTION?
N-Cadherin production correllated to structure development.
Cell migration from ectoderm (outer) to mesenchymal (inner)position forming somites.
DESMOSOME/HEMIDESOMES...WHERE DO YOU FIND EACH OF THEM?`
Anchor cells to other cells.
Catenins & cadherins. WHAT ARE THEIR FUNCTIONS.
Catenins tether the cadherins to the cytoskeleton.
Cadherins Glycoproteins mediating Ca+ -dependent cell adhesion that join cells of similar type
_______ ______ in epithelia forms a belt around cell’s apical surface. think cell to cell contact.
Cell-to-cell contact in adherens junctions are cemented by Ca+-dependent linkages. why?
Extracellular domains of cadherin molecules.
REMEMBER WHEN YOU SEE CADHEREIN OR CATENINS THINK CALCIUM