Psychology Ch. 11 and 14

  1. Psychology ch. 11 and ch. 14
  2. Stressors
    Events that cuase a stress reaction
  3. Stress
    The term used to describe physical, emotional, cognitive, and behavioral responses to events that are appraised as threatening or challenging

  4. Distress
    The effect of unpleasant and undesirable stressors
  5. Eustress
    The effect of positive events, or the optimal amount of stress that people need to promote health and well-being
  6. Cogintive appraisal approach
    States that how people think about a stressor determines, at least in part, how stressful taht stresssor will become
  7. Primary appraisal
    The first step in assessing a stress which involves estimating the severity of a stressor and classifying it as either a threat or a challenge
  8. Secondary appraisal
    The second step in assessing a threat, which involeves estimating the resources available to the person for coping with the stressor
  9. Catastrophe
    An unpredictable, large-scale event that creates a tremendous need to adapt and adjust as well as overwhelming feelings of threat
  10. Major life events
    cause stress by requiring adjustment
  11. social readjustment rating scale (SRRS)
    Assessment that measures the amount of stress ina person's life over a one-year period resluting from major life events
  12. College undergraduate stress scale (CUSS)
    Assessment that measures the amount of stress in a college student's life over a one-year period resulting from major life events
  13. Hassles
    • The daily annoyances of everyday life
  14. Pressure
    The psychological experience produced by urgent demands or expectations for a person's behavior that come from an outside source
  15. Uncontrollability
    The degree of control that the person has over a particular event or situation. The less control a person has, the greater degree of stress
  16. Frustration
    The psychological experience produced by the blocking of a desired goal or fulfillment of a percieved need
  17. Conflict
    Psychological experience of being pulled toward or drawn to two or more desires or goals, only one which may be attained
  18. Aggression
    Actions meant to harm or destroy (from frustration)
  19. Displaced aggression
    Taking out one's frustrations on some less threatening or more available target, a form of displacement
  20. Escape or whithdrawal
    Leaving the presence of a stressor, either literally or by a psychological withdrawal into fantasy, drug abuse, or apathy.
  21. Approach- approach conflict
    Conflict occuring when a person must choose between two desirable goals
  22. Avoidance-avoidance conflict
    Conflict occuring when a person must choose between two undesirable goals
  23. Approach- avoidance conflict
    Conflict occuring when a person must choose or not choose a goal that has both positive and negative aspects
  24. Double approach-avoidance conflict
    Conflict in wich the person must decide between two goals, with each goal possessing both positive and negative aspects
  25. Multiple approach-avoidance conflict
    Conflict in which the person must decide between more than two goals, with each goal possessing both positive and negative aspects
  26. Sympathetic nervous system
    responds to stressful events
  27. Parasympathetic system
    Restores the body to normal functioning after the stress has ceased
  28. General adaptation syndrome (GAS)
    The three stages of the body's physiological reaction to stress, including alarm, resistance, and exhaustion
  29. Psychoneuroimmunology
    The study of the effects of psychological factors such as stress, emotions, thoughts, and behavior ont he immune system
  30. Type A personality
    Person who is ambitious, time conscious, extremely hard working, and tends to have high levels of hostility and anger as well as being easily annoyed
  31. Type B personality
    Person who is relaxed and laid-back, less driven and competitive than type a, and slow to anger
  32. Type C personality
    Pleasant but repressed person, who tends to interalize his or her anger and anxiety and who finds expressing emotions difficult
  33. Hardy personality
    A person who seems to thrive on stress but lacks the anger and hositlity of the type a personality
  34. Burnout
    Negative changes in thoughts, emotions, and behavior as a reslut of prolonged stress or frustration
  35. Acculturative stress
    Stress resulting from th eneed to change and adapt a person's ways to the majority culture
  36. Four methods of acculturation
    • Integration
    • Assimilation
    • Separation
    • Marginalization
  37. Social support system
    The network of family, friends, neighbors, coworkers, and others who can offer support, comfort, or aid to a person in need
  38. Coping strategies
    Actions that people can take to master, tolerate, reduce, or minimize the effects of stressors
  39. Problem-focused coping
    Coping strategies that try to eliminate the source of a stress or reduce its impact through direct actions
  40. Emotion-focused coping
    Coping strategies that change the impact of a stressor by changing the emotional reaction to the stressor
  41. Psychological defense mechanisms
    Unconscious distorions of a person's preception of reality that reduce stress and anxiety
  42. Denial
    Psychological denfense mechanism in which the person refuses to acknowledge or recognize a threatening situation
  43. Repression
    Psychological defense mechanism in which the person refuses to consciously remember a threatening or unacceptable event, instead pushing those events into the unconscious mind
  44. Rationalization
    Psychological defense mechanism in wich a person invents acceptable excuses for unacceptable behavior
  45. Projection
    Psychological defense mechanism in wich unaccpetable or threatening impulses or feelings are seen as origniation with someone else, usually the target of the impulses or feelings
  46. Reaction formation
    Psychological defense mechanism in wich a person forms an opposite emotional or behavioral reaction to the way he or she really feels to keep those true feelings hidden from self and others
  47. Dispacement
    Redirecting feelings from a threatening target to a less threatening one
  48. Regression
    Psychological defense mechanism in wich a person falls back on childlike patterns of responding in reaction to stressful situations
  49. Identification
    Defense mechanism in which a person tries to become like someone else to deal with anxiety
  50. Compensation (Subsitution)
    Defense mechanism in wich a person makes up for inferiorities in one area by becoming superior in another area
  51. Sublimation
    Channeling socially unacceptable impulses and urges into socially acceptable behavior
  52. Meditation
    Mental series of exercises meant to refocuse anntention and achieve a trancelike state of consciousness
  53. Concentrative meditation
    Form of meditation in which ap erson focuses the mind on some repetitive or unchanging stimulus so that the mind can be cleared of disturbing thoughts and the body can experience relaxation
  54. Receptive meditation
    form of meditation in wich a person attempts to become aware of everything in immediate conscious experience, or an expansion of consciousness
  55. Trepanning
    Cutting holes in a persons head to let the evil spirits out
  56. Psychopathology
    The study of abnormal behavior
  57. Psychological disorders
    any pattern of behavior that causes people significant distress, causes them to harm others, or harms their ability to function in daily life
  58. Definitions of abnormality
    • Statistically rare
    • Deviant from social norms
    • Subjective discomfort
    • Maladaptive
  59. Situational context
    The social or enviromental setting of a person's behavior
  60. Subjective discomfot
    Emotional distress or emotional pain
  61. Maladaptive
    Anything that does not allow a person to function within or adapt to the stresses and everyday demands of life
  62. Biological model
    Model of explaining behavior as cuased by biological changes in the chemical, structural, or genetic systems of the body
  63. Psycoanalytic theorists viewpoint on psychopathology
    Assume that abnormal behavior stems from repressed conflicts and urges that are fighting to become conscious
  64. Behaviorists viewpoints of psychopathology
    See abnormal behavior as learned
  65. Cognitive theorists viewpoint of psychopathology
    See abnormal behavior as coming from irrational beliefs and illogical pattorns of thought
  66. Cultural reality
    The need to consider the unique characteristics of the culture in which behavior takes place
  67. Culture-bound syndromes
    Disorders found only in particular cultures
  68. DSM-IV-TR
    Diagnostic and statistical manual, version IV, text revision
  69. Five axes of the DSM
    Clinical disorders, personality disorders, general medical conditions, psychosocial and enviromental problems, and a global assessment of functioning
  70. How many adults over 18 suffer from a mental disorder in a given year
  71. Anxiety disorders
    Disorders in wich the main symptom is excessive or unrealistic anxiety and fearfulness
  72. Free-floating anxiety
    Anxiety that is unrelated to any realistic, known source
  73. Phobia
    An irrational, persistent fear of an object, situation, or social activity
  74. Social phobia
    Fear of interacting with others or being in social situations tha tmight lead to a negative evaluation
  75. Specific phobia
    Fear of objects or specific situations
  76. Acrophobia
    Fear of heights
  77. Agoraphobia
    Fear of being in a place or situation from which escape is difficult or impossible
  78. Panic disorder
    Disorder in wich panic attacks occur frequently enough to cause the person difficulty in adjusting to daily life
  79. Panic attack
    Sudden onset of intense panic inw ich multiple physical sympots of stress occur, often with feelings that one is dying
  80. Panic disorder with agoraphobia
    Fear of leaving one's familiar surroundings becuase one might have a panic attack in public
  81. Generalized anxiety disorder
    Disorder in wich a person has feelings of dread and impending doom along with physical symptoms of stress, wich lasts six months or more
  82. Psychoanalytic causes of anxiety
    Explanations point to repressed urges and desires that are trying to come into conscious, creating anxiety that is controlled by the abnormal behavior
  83. Behaviorists causes of anxiety
    State that disordered behavior is learned through both postitive and negative reinforcement
  84. Cognitive psychologists causes of anxiety
    • Believe that excessive anxiety comes from illogical, irrational thought processes
    • Magnification, All-or-nothing thinking, overgeneralization, minimization
  85. Magnifiaction
    The tendency to interpret situations as far mor dangerous, harmful, or important than they actually are
  86. All-or-nothing thinking
    The tendency to believe that one's performance must be perfect or the result will be a total failure
  87. Overgeneralization
    The tendency to interpret a single negative event as a never-ending pattern of defeat and failure
  88. Minimization
    The tendency to give little or no importance to one's successes or positive events and traits
  89. Biological explanations of anxiety
    Chemical imbalances in the nervous system, in particular serotonin and GABA systems
  90. Somatoform disorders
    Disorders that tkae the form of bodily illnesses and symptoms but for which there are no real physical disorders
  91. Psychosomatic disorder
    Disorder in which psychological stress causes a real physical disorder of illness
  92. Psychophysiologica disorder
    Modern term for psychosomatic disorder
  93. Hypochondriasis
    Somatoform disorder in which the person is terrified of being sicka nd owrries constantly, going to doctors repeatedly, and becoming preoccupied with every sensation of the body
  94. Somatization disorder
    Somatoform disorder in which the person dramatically complains of a specific symptom such as nausea, difficult swallowing, or pain for which there is no real physical cause
  95. Conversion disorder
    Somatoform disorder in wich the person experiences a specific symptom in the somatic nervous system's functioning, such as paralysis, numbness, or blindness, for which there is no physical cause. (Glove anesthesia)
  96. Psychoanalytic cause of somatoform
    Explanations of somatoform disorders assume that anxiety is turned into a physical symptom
  97. Behavioral cause of somatoform disorder
    Explanations point to the negative reinforcement experienced with the "ill" person escapes unpleasant situations such as combat
  98. Cognitive explanations of somatoform disorders
    Explanations assume that poeple magnify their physical symptoms and normal bodily changes into ailments out of irrational fear
  99. Dissociative disorders
    Disorders in wich there is a break in in conscious awareness, memory, the sense of identity, or some combination
  100. Depersonalization disorder
    Dissociative disorder in wich a person feels detached and disconnected from themselves, their bodies, and their surroundings
  101. Psychoanalytics development of dissociative disorders
    Explanations point to repression of memories, seeing dissociation as a defense mechanism against anxiety
  102. Coginitive and behavioral explanation of dissociative disorders
    Explanatinos see dissociatve disorders as a kind of avoidance learning
  103. Biological explanation of dissociative disorders
    Explanations point to lower than normal activity levels in the areas responsible for body awareness in people with dissociative disorders
  104. Affect
    in psychology, an emotional reaction
  105. Mood disorders
    Disorder in wich mood is severly disturbed
  106. Dysthymia
    A moderate depression that lasts for two years or more and is typically a reaction to some external stressor
  107. Cyclothymia
    Disorder that consists of mood swings from moderate depression to hypomania and lasts two years or more
  108. Major depression
    Severe depression that comes on suddently and seems to have no external cause
  109. Manic
    Having the quality of excessive excitement, energy, and elation or irritability
  110. Bipolar disorder
    Severe mood swings between major depressive episodes and manic episodes
  111. Psychoanalytics cause of mood disorders
    Theories see depression as anger at authority figures from childhood turned inward on the self
  112. Learning causes of mood disorders
    Theories link depression to learned helplessness
  113. Cognitive causes for mood disorders
    Theories see depression as the result of distorted, illogical thinking
  114. Biological explanations of mood disorders
    Explanations of mood disorders look at the function of serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine systems in the brain
  115. S
  116. Schizophrenia
    Severe disorder in which the person suffers from disordered thinking, bizarre behavior, hallucinations, and is unable to distinguish between fantasy and reality
  117. Psychotic
    The break away from an ablitiy to percieve what is real and what is fantasy
  118. Positive symptoms of schizophrenia
    Symptoms of schizophrenia that are excesses of behavior or occur in addition to normal behavior; hallucinations, delusions, and distorted thinking
  119. Delusions
    False beliefs held by a person who refuses to accept evidence of their falseness
  120. Delusional disorder
    A psychotic disorder in which primary symptom is oen or more delusions (may or may not be schizophrenia)
  121. Hallucinations
    False sensory perceptions, such as hearing voices that do not really exist
  122. Negative symptoms of schizophrenia
    Symptoms of schizophrenia that are less than normal behavior or an absence of normal behavior; poor attention, flat affect, and poor speech production
  123. Flat affect
    A lack of emotional responsiveness
  124. Disorganized
    type of schizophrenia in wich behavior is bizarre and childish and thinking, speech, and motor actions are very disordered
  125. Catatonic
    Type of schizophrenia in wich the person experiences periods of statue-like immobility mixed with occasional bursts of energetic, frantic movement and talking
  126. Paranoid
    Type of schizophrenia in wich the person suffers from delusions of persecution, grandeur, and jealousy, together with hallucniations
  127. Undifferentiated
    type of schizophrenia in wich the person shows no particular pattern, shifting from one pattern to another, and cannot be neatly classified as disorganized, paranoid, or cataonic
  128. Residual
    Type of schozophrenia in which there are no delusions and hallucinations, but the person still experiences negative thoughts, poor launguage skills, and odd behavior
  129. Psychoanalytic cuases of schizophrenia
    Theories see schizophrenia as resulting froma severe breakdown of the ego, which has become overwhelmed by the demands of the id and results in childish, infantile behavior
  130. Behaviorists causes of schizophrenia
    Focus on how reinforcement, observational learning, and shaping affect the development of the behavioral symptoms of schozophrenia
  131. Cognitive theories of schizophrenia
    Theorists see schizophrenia as severely irrational thinking
  132. Biological causes of schizophrenia
    Explanations focus on dopaminel structural defects in the brain, and genetic influnences in schizophrenia
  133. Stress-vulnerablility model
    Explanation of disorder that ssumes a biological sensitivity, or vulnerablitity, to a certain dosorder will develop under the right conditions of enviromental or emotional stress
  134. Personality disorders
    disorders in wich a person adopts a persistent, rigid, and maladaptive pattern of behavior that interferes with normal social interactions
  135. Antisocial personality disorder
    Disorder in wich a person has no morals or conscience and often behaves in an impulsive manner whitho0ut regard for the consequences of tha behavior
  136. Borderline personality disorder
    MAladaptive personality pattern in which the person is moody, unstable, lacks a clear sense of identity, and often clings to others
  137. Psychoanalysts causes of personality disorder
    Blame an inadequte resolution to the Oedipal complex for personality disorders, stating that this results in a poorly developed superego
  138. Cognitive-learning causes of personality disorders
    Theorists see personality disorders as a set of learned behavior that has become maladaptive- bad habits learned early on in life. Belief systems of the personality disordered person are seen as illogical
  139. Biological causes of personality disorders
    Explanations look at the lower that normal stress hormones in antisocial personality disordered persons as responsible for their low responsiveness to threatening stimuli
  140. Other possible causes of personality disorders
    Disturbances in family communications and relationships, childhood abuse, neglect, overly strict parenting, overprotective parenting, and parental rejection
  141. Phototherapy
    The use of lights to treat seasonal affective disorder or other disorders
  142. Person center therapy
    Carl rogers
  143. Clorpromazine
    Acts on dopomine receptors antagonist to dopomine receptor
  144. SSRI
    Selective seritonin reuptake inhibitor
Card Set
Psychology Ch. 11 and 14
Ch. 11 and 14 from psych