1. Describe Koch's Postulates.
    • 1. The disease-causing organism must be present in sick animals, but not healthy ones.
    • 2. The organism must be cultivated in a pure culture outside and away from the human body.
    • 3. The isolated organism must cause the disease when inoculated into a healthy susceptible animal.
    • 4. The organism must be isolated from the newly infected animals, grown in pure culture outside the human body, and should be seen to be the same as the original organism.
  2. Explain some of the problems associated with determining pathogen-disease associations based solely on Koch's postulates..
    • 1. diseases that affect humans but not animals
    • 2. viruses are not able to grow without a host
    • 3. what if the bacteria cannot grow in culture, viruses cannot grow in media must ahve a host
  3. Compare and Contrast the cell wall found in Gram + and Gram - bacteria.

    **5 Things
    • 1. Peptidoglycan
    • Gram+ 90%
    • Gram - 10%
    • 2. Teichoic Acids
    • G+ Many of these
    • G- None
    • 3. Outer Membrane
    • G+ None
    • G- LPS, phospholipids, periplasm
    • 4. Staining
    • G+ Violet
    • G- Pink
    • 5. Endotoxins
    • G+ none
    • G- yes, in LPS
  4. The original name for viruses was "filterable viruses". What does this name mean? Start with the literal translation and describe it.
    • "Virus" means poision.
    • Beijerinch used filtering techniques to eliminate bacteria (5pts)
    • Filtrate could then cause tobacco mosaic disease
    • (5pts)

    He ground up diseased tobacco plants hoping to filter out the pathogen. He then took the filtrae and put on healthy plants. If they got infected, it was proof to be something other than bacteria.
  5. Describe (or draw and describe) catabolic diversity. In your answer you should include the 7 categories represented by microorganisms. Explain how these 7 categories are grouped into 3 major categories. For each of the 7 categories, describe the source of electrons and carbon. First give the major categories.
    • 1. Chemolithotrophs
    • 2. Chemoorganotrophs
    • 3. Phototrophs

    Now, in order answer the rest..
  6. Chemolithotrophs..
    Carbon / Electron Source- inorganic compounds as electron and carbon sources.

    • 1. Anaerobic: use something other than O2 as terminal electron acceptor.
    • 2. Aerobic: use O2 as terminal electron acceptor.
  7. Chemoorganotrophs..
    Use an organic compound as electron and carbon sources.

    • 1. Fermentation: use byproducts from glycolysis
    • 2. Anaerobic: use something other than O2 as terminal electron acceptor
    • 3. Aerobic: use O2 as terminal electron acceptor
  8. Photorophs..
    Use light as an energy source.

    • 1. Photoheterotroph: use organic compounds as carbon source.
    • 2. Photoautotrophs: use CO2 as carbon source
  9. In general, describe the steps of aerobic cellular respiration. You do not need to give the steps of glycolysis, the intermediate reaction, TCA, and the electron transport chain, but you should be able to give
    beginning and ending products of each of these reactions and describe the overall function of each of these steps.
  10. The process of photosynthesis is usually divided into two main parts. Name the parts and describe what happens in each of these parts. How are the two parts related? (I’m looking for short statements—not pathways--here.)
    Light Dependent vs. Light Dependent Reactions

    Describe in order..
  11. Light Dependent Rxn...
    Use light energy to generate ATP and reducing power NADPH.

    • -anoxygenic: something other than O2 as byproduct
    • -oxygenic: O2 as byproduct
  12. Light Independent Rxn...
    Use ATP and electrons from light-dependent reaction to incorporate carbon dioxide into organic material.

    • -can occur in dark or light
    • -calvin cycle
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