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What is neoplasia?
What is cancer?
population of cells with rapid, uncontrolled growth
What is malignant cancer?
cancer that spreads from the original site by infiltration or metastasis
Referring to neoplasia, what does "infiltration" mean?
the cancer spreads from the original site by expanding into the surrounding tissue, the way a plant's roots spread through soil as it grows
Referring to neoplasia, what does "metastasis" mean?
spread of cancer form its original site to another site, not directly in contact with original site. may be spread by blood, lymph, or by implantation (seeding)
List the 4 types of cancer therapy.
- drugs - chemotherapy
- immue modulation
Can combination of types of therapy be used?
What is chemotherapy?
- using drugs to treat cancer - antineoplastic drugs.
- the term loosely means treatment of any kind of condition with drugs, but is undertood nowadays to refer more specifically to cancer drug therapy.
What is an oncologist?
a veterinarian or physician who specializes in cancer treatment
What is the ideal goal of cancer therapy?
to completely cure the patient. to kill all neoplastic cells
How often is the ideal goal of cancer therapy achieved?
What is the realistic goal of cancer therapy?
- to prolong remission or survival times
- to reduce tumore size, relieve pain, destroy microscopic metastases
In general, how do antineoplastic drugs work against cancer cells?
interfere with the rapid growth of cancer cells
Can antineoplastic drugs affect normal cells in the patient? Explain.
yes - can also affect normal rapidly dividing cells in the patient's body, such as bone marrow, GI tract, reproductive organs, and hair follicles. some of the adverse side effects of antineoplastic drugs are due to this effect
List some of the adverse side effects of antineoplastic drugs.
- hair loss
- painful administration
- perivascular tissue damage
Are antineoplastic drugs danergous to peoplep who handle them? What kinds of problems can occur?
yes - teratogenic, mutagenic, carcinogenic
What does "teratogenic" mean?
causes birth defects
What does "mutagenic" mean?
causes genetic mutations, or changes in the DNA of cells
What does "carcinogenic" mean?
List 6 classifications of antineoplastic drugs.
- alkylating agents
- plant alkaloids
- platinum drugs
List 1 alkylating agent drug.
cyclophophamide - Cytoxan
What adverse effects are associated with cyclophosphamide?
- hemorrahgic cystitis
List 3 antimetabolite drugs.
- cytosine arabinoside (Cytosar - U)
List 2 plant alkaloids.
- vincristine - Oncovin
- vinblastine - Velban
What plant are they derived from?
periwinkle - Vinca roses
List 1 antibiotic antineoplastic drugs.
doxorubicin - Adriamycin
List 2 platinum drugs.
- cisplatin - Platinol
- caboplatin - Paraplatin
List 2 miscellaneous antineoplastic drugs or drug categories.
- asparaginase - Elspar
How are glucocorticoid drugs helpful for cancer chemotherapy purposes?
- lympholytic - help to control neoplasms of the lymphatic system
- increase appetite and sense of well-being
List 2 glucocorticoid drugs.
What plants of flowers are these drugs derived from?
- atropine: deadly nightshade - Atropa belladonna
- opioids: opium poppy
- digitalis: foxglove - Digitalis purpura
- pyrethrins - chrysanthemum
- vinchristine and vinblastine - periwinke - Vinca rosea