Antineoplastic Drugs

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  1. What is neoplasia?
  2. What is cancer?
    population of cells with rapid, uncontrolled growth
  3. What is malignant cancer?
    cancer that spreads from the original site by infiltration or metastasis
  4. Referring to neoplasia, what does "infiltration" mean?
    the cancer spreads from the original site by expanding into the surrounding tissue, the way a plant's roots spread through soil as it grows
  5. Referring to neoplasia, what does "metastasis" mean?
    spread of cancer form its original site to another site, not directly in contact with original site. may be spread by blood, lymph, or by implantation (seeding)
  6. List the 4 types of cancer therapy.
    • drugs - chemotherapy
    • surgery
    • radiation
    • immue modulation
  7. Can combination of types of therapy be used?
  8. What is chemotherapy?
    • using drugs to treat cancer - antineoplastic drugs.
    • the term loosely means treatment of any kind of condition with drugs, but is undertood nowadays to refer more specifically to cancer drug therapy.
  9. What is an oncologist?
    a veterinarian or physician who specializes in cancer treatment
  10. What is the ideal goal of cancer therapy?
    to completely cure the patient. to kill all neoplastic cells
  11. How often is the ideal goal of cancer therapy achieved?
    not very
  12. What is the realistic goal of cancer therapy?
    • to prolong remission or survival times
    • to reduce tumore size, relieve pain, destroy microscopic metastases
  13. In general, how do antineoplastic drugs work against cancer cells?
    interfere with the rapid growth of cancer cells
  14. Can antineoplastic drugs affect normal cells in the patient? Explain.
    yes - can also affect normal rapidly dividing cells in the patient's body, such as bone marrow, GI tract, reproductive organs, and hair follicles. some of the adverse side effects of antineoplastic drugs are due to this effect
  15. List some of the adverse side effects of antineoplastic drugs.
    • anaphylaxis
    • immunosuppresion
    • myelosuppression
    • cariomyopathy
    • vomiting
    • diarrhea
    • hair loss
    • cystitis
    • painful administration
    • perivascular tissue damage
  16. Are antineoplastic drugs danergous to peoplep who handle them? What kinds of problems can occur?
    yes - teratogenic, mutagenic, carcinogenic
  17. What does "teratogenic" mean?
    causes birth defects
  18. What does "mutagenic" mean?
    causes genetic mutations, or changes in the DNA of cells
  19. What does "carcinogenic" mean?
    causes cancer
  20. List 6 classifications of antineoplastic drugs.
    • alkylating agents
    • antimetabolites
    • plant alkaloids
    • antibiotics
    • platinum drugs
    • miscellaneous
  21. List 1 alkylating agent drug.
    cyclophophamide - Cytoxan
  22. What adverse effects are associated with cyclophosphamide?
    • neutropenia
    • hemorrahgic cystitis
  23. List 3 antimetabolite drugs.
    • methotrexate
    • cytosine arabinoside (Cytosar - U)
    • fluorouracil
  24. List 2 plant alkaloids.
    • vincristine - Oncovin
    • vinblastine - Velban
  25. What plant are they derived from?
    periwinkle - Vinca roses
  26. List 1 antibiotic antineoplastic drugs.
    doxorubicin - Adriamycin
  27. List 2 platinum drugs.
    • cisplatin - Platinol
    • caboplatin - Paraplatin
  28. List 2 miscellaneous antineoplastic drugs or drug categories.
    • asparaginase - Elspar
    • glucocorticoids
  29. How are glucocorticoid drugs helpful for cancer chemotherapy purposes?
    • lympholytic - help to control neoplasms of the lymphatic system
    • increase appetite and sense of well-being
  30. List 2 glucocorticoid drugs.
    • prednisone
    • prenisolone
  31. What plants of flowers are these drugs derived from?
    • atropine: deadly nightshade - Atropa belladonna
    • opioids: opium poppy
    • digitalis: foxglove - Digitalis purpura
    • pyrethrins - chrysanthemum
    • vinchristine and vinblastine - periwinke - Vinca rosea
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Antineoplastic Drugs
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