1. Process by which the developing brain weeds out unnecessary neural connections
  2. Refers to the pattern of continuity and change in human capabilities that occurs throughout the course of life
  3. In our effort to experience our lives in optimal ways, we develop _________ that involve activities, social relationships, and life goals
    life themes
  4. A __________ is any agent that causes a birth defect.
  5. The preferential looking technique involves giving an infant a choice of
    what object to look at.
  6. Refers to decreased responsiveness to a stimulus after repeated presentations
  7. As early as______, infants are already engaged in organized perception of faces and are able to put together sights and sounds.
    7 days old
  8. During the first ____ of life, the dendrites of the neurons branch out, and the neurons become far more interconnected
    2 years
  9. The process of encasing axons with fat cells begins prenatally and continues after birth.
  10. During childhood, synaptic connections
    increase dramatically
  11. From 3 to 6 years of age, the most rapid growth takes place in the________, which are involved in planning and organizing new actions and in maintaining attention to tasks
    frontal lobe areas
  12. Not only nature, but ____________ also promote brain development
    New experiences in the world
  13. Piaget believed that children _______ their cognitive world as they go through a series of stages
    actively construct
  14. When individuals incorporate new information into existing knowledge
  15. When individuals adjust their schemas to new information
  16. People accommodate their _____ to the ____________
    schemas to the environment
  17. The first time a child realizes that she might suck her thumb, she is assimilating the category ____ into the schema of________.
    “thumb” / sucking
  18. Piaget's first stage, the _______________stage, lasts from birth to about 2 years of age.
  19. Piaget's term for understanding that objects and events continue to exist even when they cannot directly be seen, heard, or touched
    Object permanence
  20. Piaget's second stage of cognitive development, lasts from approximately 2 to 7 years of age
    the preoperational stage
  21. Preschoolers cannot perform what Piaget called______, by which he meant mental representations that are “reversible.”
  22. Belief in the permanence of certain attributes of objects despite superficial changes
  23. Piaget's _____ stage (7 to 11 years of age) involves using operations and replacing intuitive reasoning with logical reasoning in concrete situations
    concrete operational stage
  24. Individuals enter the ____________ stage of cognitive development at 11 to 15 years of age.
    formal operational
  25. Formal operational thought is more abstract and logical than
    concrete operational thought
  26. Renee Baillargeon documented that infants as young as 3 months of age know that
    objects continue to exist even when hidden
  27. Vygotsky thought of children as __________ who develop as they interact in dialogue with more knowledgeable others
    apprentice thinkers
  28. An individual's behavioral style and characteristic way of responding
  29. The close emotional bond between an infant and its caregiver.
    Infant attachment
  30. Ainsworth describes this as how infants use the caregiver, usually the mother, as a secure base from which to explore the environment
    secure attachment
  31. a way to study differences in children's attachment
    strange situation test
  32. Another critique of attachment theory is that it may not account for
    temperamental differences among infants
  33. Development theory of the influential psychologist Erik Erikson
    The life-span development theory
  34. Lifespan mos 0-18: built when a baby's basic needs—such as comfort, food, and warmth—are met.
    Trust versus mistrust
  35. Lifespan 1.5-3: Children can develop either a positive sense of independence and autonomy or negative feelings of ___ / this is called
    shame and doubt. Autonomy vs shame & doubt.
  36. Lifespan 3 – 5: Social worlds widen; assume more self-responsibility, or show less, or feel anxious
    Initiative vs guilt
  37. Lifespan 6 – puberty: Chance to master knowledge and intellectual skills
    Industry versus inferiority
  38. Some reject Erikson because he:
    mainly practiced case study, and tries to capture each stage with a single concept
  39. Restrictive, punitive style of parenting
  40. Parenting that encourages the child to be independent but still places limits and controls on behavior
    Authoritative parenting
  41. Parenting showing lack of parental involvement in the child's life
    Neglectful parenting
  42. Parenting with few limits on the child's behavior
    Permissive parenting
  43. Kohlberg's theory, based on punishments (stage 1) and rewards (stage 2)
  44. Kohlberg's theory, individual abides by standards such as those learned from parents (stage 3) or society's laws (stage 4)
  45. Kohlberg's theory, when the individual recognizes alternative moral courses, explores the options, and then develops a personal moral code.
  46. Kohlberg's theory is called a____ perspective because it focuses on the rights of the individual
  47. Gilligan's (1982) approach to moral development, views people in terms of their connectedness with others
    Care perspective
  48. __________ can influence whether a person approaches a moral dilemma from the perspective of justice or care
  49. Behavior that is intended to benefit other people
    Prosocial behavior
  50. Age when children begin to show signs of early conscience development
  51. Engaging in a conversation with someone and making a negative event that the person is going through seem even worse
  52. A person's ability to recover from or adapt to difficult times
Card Set
Childhood human development