1. The force that moves people to behave, think, and feel the way they do.
  2. _____________ behavior is energized, directed, and sustained.
  3. An innate (unlearned) biological pattern of behavior that is assumed to be universal throughout a species
  4. Study of animal behavior
  5. Sets instinct in motion
    Sign Stimulus
  6. An aroused state that occurs because of a physiological need
  7. Deprivation that energizes the drive to eliminate or reduce the deprivation.
  8. Psychologists think of ____ as underlying our _____
    Needs / drives
  9. Theory that a drive becomes stronger, we are motivated to reduce it
    Drive Reduction theory
  10. Goal of drive reduction is _____________, the body's tendency to maintain an equilibrium, or steady state
  11. Theory that performance is best under moderate arousal rather than either low or high
    Yerkes-Dodson law
  12. Important factor in hunger, brain depends on it for energy
    Glucose (blood sugar)
  13. Sugar receptor in the brain does....
    triggers hunger when sugar levels fall too low
  14. Sugar receptors in the liver...
    stores excess sugar and releases it into the blood when needed; signal the brain when its supply falls
  15. The chemical substance released by fat cells, decreases food intake and increases metabolism
  16. The ______ hypothalamus is involved in stimulating eating.
  17. The ____________ hypothalamus is involved in reducing hunger and restricting eating
  18. Gene influencing some individuals do inherit a tendency to be overweight
    OB Gene
  19. The weight maintained when the individual makes no effort to gain or lose
    Set point
  20. Fat is stored in ___________ cells
  21. Motivation for sexual behavior is centered in the
  22. the __________ of the neocortex (located on the sides of the brain) are important to moderate sexual arousal and direct it to an appropriate object
    temporal lobes
  23. Sex hormones that predominates in males, produced by the testes, and by adrenal glands in both males and females
  24. Masters and Johnson identified a human sexual response pattern consisting of four phases
    excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution.
  25. phase continuation and heightening of the arousal begun in the excitement phase
    plateau phase
  26. phase begins the process of erotic responsiveness.
  27. phase in which blood vessels return to their normal state.
  28. stereotyped patterns of expectancies for how people should behave sexually
    Sexual scripts
  29. Twin studies show that ____ do play a role in sexual orientation
  30. Some studies suggest sexual orientation heritability as high as __ percent
  31. Physiological needs, safety, love and belongingness, esteem, and self-actualization are all part of
    Humanistic theorist Maslow's hierarchy of needs
  32. the highest and most elusive of Maslow's needs, motivation to develop one's full potential
  33. Self-determination theory asserts that there are three basic organismic needs: competence, relatedness, and autonomy
  34. Need met in self-determination theory, when we feel that we are able to bring about desired outcomes
  35. ________ motivation involves self-efficacy and mastery
  36. organismic need described by self-determination theory, the need to engage in warm relations with other people
  37. The third need proposed by self-determination theory, the sense that we are in control of our own life
  38. Self-determination theory says that one of the most important aspects of healthy motivation is the sense that
    we do the things we do because we have freely chosen to do them.
  39. ____ motivation is based on internal factors such as organismic needs
  40. __________ motivation involves external incentives such as rewards and punishments.
  41. Process by which an organism effortfully controls behavior in order to pursue important objectives
  42. One of the most important underlying problems in resisting temptation
    Delay of gratification
  43. _______ is feeling, or affect, that can involve physiological arousal (such as a fast heartbeat), conscious experience (thinking about being in love with someone), and behavioral expression (a smile or grimace).
  44. One aspect of emotional arousal is ______________ response, a rise in the skin's electrical conductivity when sweat gland activity increases.
    skin conductance level (SCL)
  45. The _________ monitors changes in the body—heart rate, breathing, and SCL—thought to be influenced by emotional states.
  46. According to the James-Lange theory, emotion results from _____ triggered by ________ in the environment
    physiological states / stimuli
  47. According to James-Lange, you:
    a. run away because you are afraid
    b. you are afraid because you are running away
  48. The proposition that emotion and physiological reactions occur simultaneously.
    Cannon-Bard theory
  49. The _________ houses circuits that are activated when we experience negative emotions
  50. The ________ plays a central role in fear.
  51. The brain circuitry that involves the emotion of fear can follow two pathways a direct pathway from the thalamus to the amygdala or an indirect pathway from the thalamus through the _________ to the amygdala
    sensory cortex
  52. The direct pathway of fear: disadvantage & advantage:
    does not convey detailed information about the stimulus, but very fast
  53. Part of the reason fears are so difficult to change is that the amygdala is well connected to the cerebral cortex, in which___ and ____ ____ primarily
    occur thinking and decision making
  54. Physiological reason fear is hard to erase and emotions are hard to control:
    Amygdala sends more connections to the cerebral cortex than it gets back.
  55. T or F: the cerebral hemispheres work differently in positive and negative emotions
  56. Chemicals involved in positive emotions such as happiness
    Endorphins & dopamine
  57. Bodily chemical regulates arousal
    norepinephrine functions in regulating arousal
  58. In the two-factor theory of emotion developed by Stanley Schachter and Jerome Singer (1962), emotion is determined by two factors:
    physiological arousal and cognitive labeling.
  59. Schachter and Singer argued that we look to the external world for an explanation of why we are aroused.
  60. Per Schachter and Singer, we interpret __________ and label the emotion
    external cues
  61. ___________________ arousal still intensifies emotional experiences
  62. Lazarus's belief that cognitive activity to be a precondition for emotion.
    Primacy of thinking
  63. Lazarus said that we cognitively appraise ourselves and our____ _____.
    social circumstances
  64. Zajonc said_______ are primary, he said, and our ______ are a result of them.
    emotions / thoughts
  65. Zajonc famously argued that “preferences need no inferences,” meaning:
    the way we feel about something on a “gut level” requires no thought.
  66. Re thought and emotion, Lazarus and Zajonc are both right: Lazarus for _______ over ______, Zajonc about _________ or _____.
    cluster of related events over a period of time/ described single events or simple preferences
  67. Hypothesis that facial expressions can influence emotions as well as reflect them
    Facial feedback hypothesis
  68. Sociocultural standards that determine when, where, and how emotions should be expressed.
    Display rules
  69. _____ of an emotion refers to whether it feels pleasant or unpleasant
  70. Research has shown that emotions tend to go together based on their ___________
  71. In valence, _____ ______ refers to emotions such as anger, guilt, and sadness.
    Negative affect
  72. In valence, _____ ______ refers to emotions such as joy, happiness, and interest.
    Positive affect
  73. Describes degree to which the emotion reflects being active, engaged, excited vs. passive, relatively disengaged, or calm
    The arousal level of an emotion
  74. Independent dimensions that together describe a vast number of emotional states
    Valence and arousal level
  75. Wheel of mood states is also called a
    circumplex model of mood
  76. Barbara Fredrickson's modelthat the function of positive emotions lies in their effects on our attention and our ability to build resources
    broaden-and-build model of positive emotion
  77. Characteristic that has been associated with the capacity to thrive during difficult times
  78. The idea that any aspect of life that enhances our positive feelings is likely to do so for only a short period of time.
    hedonic treadmill
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