1. discharge
    the amount of runoff in rivers/streams
  2. Badlands
    formed by erosion not precipitation; precipitation and stream flow erode way the material
  3. crecsent vs parabolic dunes
    • crecsent: horns point downwind
    • parabolic: horns point upwind; great plains during the 1930's, vegetation and strong winds
  4. slipface
    the steep slope of the leeward side
  5. cutbank
    erosional feature in a meandering stream
  6. pointbar
    depositional feature in a meandering stream
  7. meandering stream
    • The river has only one main channel
    • that wanders
  8. ox bow creates
    • The ox-bow lake dries up (it is no
    • longer linked to the river) and becomes a marshy swamp called "a meander scar
  9. how and oxbow lake is created
    • Erosion created by the cutbanks elongates (makes bigger) the meander
    • loop
    • Eventually the loop becomes so bigthat, when the next flood occurs, the river cuts across the small segment of
    • land separating one meander loop from the next
    • The now-isolated loop of water, cut off
    • from the river, creates a "U"-shaped lake called "an ox-bow lake
  10. location of stream
    meandering happen where more rainfall occurs ie: Mississippi river, whereas braided streams do not require as much rain and are generally found in the Western United States
  11. delta
    is formed by deposition
  12. dust storms
    • strong winds lift huge quantities of
    • fine dust forming a dense low cloud of material
  13. ventifact
    wind eroded rock
  14. spring tide
    • caused when the moon and the sun are in alignment and have nothing to do with spring; their gravities act together and so the
    • sea rise is much higher
  15. fetch
    the area over which winds build waves
  16. plunging breakers
    top of the wave is shoots forward over the base
  17. coastal erosion
    • cause sea arches/stacks, which are around the
    • California coast
  18. beaches are
  19. groins
    man made barriers that are meant to prevent beach erosion
  20. spit
    • beachdrifting and longshore current
    • create an arm of sand across a bay
  21. tombolo
    a spit that ties an island to the mainland
  22. atoll
    • A reef which usually has an interior
    • lagoon and needs no land
  23. barrier island
    • a narrow strip of sand dunes, beaches and
    • marshes located a few miles off shore
  24. glacier
    • is any body of ice moving due to
    • gravity that has been formed on land by the compaction and re-crystallization
    • of snow
  25. neve
    snow that has significantly densified; called firn if it lasts longer than a year
  26. cirque glacier
    • Glacier found near the top of the
    • mountain. This glacier carves out a bowl-like depression in the side of the
    • mountain
  27. piedmont glacier
    a glacier that extends from the valley glacier into the area around the mountain.
  28. valley glacier
    • - a glacier that extends down the
    • mountain from
    • the cirque glacier
  29. moraine
    debris carried and deposited by a glacier
  30. lateral moraine
    deposited on the sides
  31. arete
    • formed when two cirque glaciers on
    • opposite sides of the mountain cut away surrounding rock, leaving a sharp ridge
    • between the two cirques
  32. horn
    when three or more aretes intersect, ie: Matterhorn
  33. fjords
    glacial valleys that are filled with water
  34. ablation
    the melting zone in a glacier
  35. abblation
    the zone of non-melting, the region where snow is added to the glacier
  36. glacier advancing and retreating
    • If the glacial mass added to the zone
    • of accumulation is greater than the mass removed in the zone of ablation, then the
    • glacier advances;
    • if ablation is greater than accumulation, then the glacier retreats.
Card Set
Final Exam