A thick yellow fluid secreted by the breast during pregnancy and the first days after delivery.
What is infancy?
The period between birth and 12 months of age.
What is extrusion reflex?
A young infant’s response when a spoon is put in its mouth; the tongue is thrust forward, indicating that the baby is not ready for spoon feeding.
What is amniotic fluid?
The fluid that surrounds the fetus; contained in the amniotic sac inside the uterus.
What are growth charts?
Charts that plot the weight, length, and head circumference of infants and children as they grow.
What is organogenesis?
The period when organ systems are developing in a growing fetus.
What is the critical period of development?
Time during which the environment has the greatest impact on the developing embryo.
What is the let-down reflux?
The release of milk from the breast tissue in response to the stimulus of the hormone oxytocin. The major stimulus for oxytocin release is the infant sucking at the breast.
What is lactation?
The process of synthesizing and secreting breast milk.
What is neonate?
An infant from birth to 28 days.
Periodic inconsolable crying in an otherwise healthy infant that appears to result from abdominal cramping and discomfort.
What is a full-term baby?
A baby delivered during the normal period of human gestation, between 38 and 41 weeks.
What is failure to thrive (FTT)?
Abnormally low gains in length (height) and weight during infancy and childhood; may result from physical problems or poor feeding, but many affected children have no apparent disease or defect.
What is gestational diabetes?
A condition that results in high blood glucose levels during pregnancy.
What is a low-birth-weight infant?
A newborn who weighs less than 2,500 grams (5.5 lb) as a result of either premature birth or inadequate growth in utero.
What is preeclampsia?
A condition of late pregnancy characterized by hypertension, edema, and proteinuria.
The first stage of gestation, during which tissue proliferation by rapid cell division begins is called what?
The blastogenic stage
What is the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children?
What does WIC do?
It is a USDA program that provides federal grants to states for supplemental foods, health care referrals, and nutrition education for low-income pregnant, breastfeeding, and non-breastfeeding postpartum women, and to infants and children at nutritional risk.
What is the developmental stage between the time of implantation (about two weeks after fertilization) through the seventh or eighth week?
The embryonic stage.
What is the backflow of stomach contents into the esophagus, accompanied by a burning pain because of the acidity of the gastric juices?
What is a delivery that occurs before the 37th week of gestation?
A pituitary hormone that stimulates the release of milk from the breast is?
How long does each trimesters last?
approximately 13 to 14 weeks.
What are complementary foods?
Any foods or liquids other than breast milk or infant formula fed to an infant
What is the period of rapid growth from the end of the embryonic stage until birth?
The fetal stage.
What are lactation consultants?
Health professionals trained to specialize in education about and promotion of breastfeeding are known as
The measurement of the largest part of the infant’s head (just above the eyebrow and ears) is head circumference; this is used to determine what?
What is a pituitary hormone that stimulates the production of milk in the breast tissue?
When is a child a toddler?
between 12 and 36 months
What is the organ formed during pregnancy that produces hormones for the maintenance of pregnancy and across which oxygen and nutrients are transferred from mother to infant; it also allows waste materials to be transferred from infant to mother?
What does taking a folic acid supplement help to reduce?
neutral tube defects
What can obesity cause when you are pregnant?
What Vitimin should not be taken excessivly because it can cause birth defects?
How much weight does the average size woman need to gain?
What is persistent or recurring nausea that often occurs in the morning during early pregnancy?
Women who have a BMI of 29 or above should gain how much?
How many more kilocalories do pregnant women need?
What are two recommended supplements pregnant women should take?
Iron and folate
What are the key vitimins and minerals needed during infancy?
How many wet diaper should your baby have a day?
six or more
How many stools should your baby have a day?
3 or more
How many kilocalories should breastfeeding women consume?
When should a baby of doubled its birth weight?
When should a baby of tripled its birth weight?
by 12 months
How much should a babys lenght of increased?
How much water should a breastfeeding women be consuming?
3.8 liters per day
What are benifits to the child from breastfeeding?
Reduce respiratory, GI, and ear infections
How many grams of folic acid should a pregnant woman consume?
How many grams of protien should a pregnant woman consume?
1.1 grams per kg of body weight
How many pounds should you gain in the first trimester?
less than 5
How many pounds should you gain in the second trimester?
less than 1 per week
How many pounds should you gain in the third trimester?
about a pound per week
What is the average lenght and weight of a newborn?
20 inches 7pd 7oz
What percent of weight gain is from the placenta and aminotic fluid?