Anthro 202 Test

  1. Characteristics of Civilizations
    Cities, Ceremonial Architecture, Complex Rituals, Specialized Labor, Social Spaces, Social Stratification, Writing or Record Keeping
  2. Environmental Hypotheses on Rise of Civilizations
    fluctuating environment- place control of surpluses in hands of the ruling class
  3. Cultural Hypotheses on Rise of Civilizations
    control of information- held by elite classes leads to increasing in the complexity of societies
  4. Earliest Cities
    • long history of permanent settlements in the Near East and Mesopotamia
    • annual floods deposit nutrients and irrigation helps water flow
    • grew wheat, millet, barley, dates, palm, veggies, pigs, and sheep
  5. Proto Cities
    • Jericho
    • Catalhoyuk, Turkey
  6. Mesopotamia
    • early farming begins around 8000 bp
    • spring floods bring water and nutrients
    • people began to control floodwater, irrigate, and redirect rivers
    • population expands
  7. Sumerians
    • City of Uruk (Iraq)
    • earlies true city
    • 5500 bp
    • trade networks throughout the region
    • developed writing
    • eventually united under different kings
  8. Egypt
    • Neolithic farming villages exist by 6000bp
    • by 5300bp, settlements congregate together into city states
    • Old Kingdom (4500bp) ruled by a pharoh
    • probably influenced by Mesopotamian and Nubian culture
  9. Indus Valley
    • Indus River
    • Mohenjo Daro
    • Harappa
    • large trade networks to Mesopotamia
    • lasted only 700 years
  10. China
    • roots along great rivers
    • grew rice and millet
  11. Shang Dynasty
    • 3600bp
    • writing, architecture and art
    • divination
    • elaborate bronze work
    • capital cities at zhengzhou and shixinanggou
  12. Qin Dynasty
    • ended the period of warring states
    • horsemanship
    • foot soldiers
    • increased weapon production
    • population boom
  13. What do all these civilizations have in common?
    • began near large rivers on floodplains
    • began after the development of agriculture
    • associated with large population sizes
    • writing
    • social stratification
Card Set
Anthro 202 Test
Old World Civilizations