1. 1. Using the US Census Bureau data at provide the following information about the religious diversity of the United States:
    • a. The percentage of Protestant
    • b. The percentage of Catholic
    • c. The percentage of Jewish
    • d. The percentage of Hindu
    • e. The percentage of Mormon
    • f. The percentage of Buddhist
    • g. The percentage of Muslim
  2. 2. Define the following terms related to spirituality and religion:
    • a. Spirituality is the belief in or relationship with a higher power, creative force, divine being, or infinite source of energy. (God, Allah, Jehovah, etc.)
    • b. Religion is an organized system of beliefs shared by a group of people and the practices, including worship, related to that system, providing a way of spiritual expression that guides people in responding to life’s questions and crises.
    • c. Faith is deeper and more personal than organized religion… relates to one’s transcendent values and relationship with a higher power, or Go. Faith is belief in something that cannot be directly observed. Faith is about expectation.
  3. 3. Describe characteristics of spirituality. Personal connectedness, connectedness to others, connectedness to the environment, connectedness to a supreme being. (pg.400)
  4. 4. Describe Westerhoff’s four stages of Faith. Experienced faith, affiliative faith, searching faith, owned faith. Where would you consider your own spiritual beliefs within Westerhoff’s stages? Self-explanatory.
  5. 5. Describe Fowler’s Stages of Faith Development. Primal faith (infancy), intuitive faith (early childhood), projective faith (early childhood), mythic and literal faith (childhood and beyond), synthetic and conventional faith (adolescence and beyond), individuative and reflective faith (young adulthood and beyond), conjunctive faith (early midlife and beyond), universalizing faith (midlife and beyond) (pg. 402) Where would you consider your won spiritual development within Fowler’s stages? Self- explanatory.
  6. 6. What is prayer? Prayer is a petition or communication with God. Describe the importance of prayer in relation to spirituality and religion. Prayer is important because it is a relationship with God and it strengthens it as well. Describe seven types of prayer. Petition is when you are asking for something for yourself, Intercession is when you’re asking something for another, Confession is when you ask for repentance and forgiveness, Thanksgiving is offering gratitude, Adoration is offering praise and worship, Invocation is summoning the presence of the almighty, and lamentation is crying in distress and asking for vindication.
  7. 7. In what ways should the nurse consider the importance of a patient’s holy days in relation to their health care? The nurse should respect a Catholic’s belief in not ingesting meat on Good Friday and perhaps offer fish instead to substitute the nutrients. However, if a Muslim is being hospitalized and Rosh Hashanah starts, I do not believe the nurse should say “It’s okay, do not eat during daylight hours for the next month,” if all the health care provides are aware of the Muslim’s condition and he/she would is in need of nutrition.
  8. 8. What are the sacred writings and symbols of the major religions in the United States? Christianity (Bible), Islam (Qu’ran) Juddaism (Torah) etc. What is the meaning and importance of one’s sacred writings and symbols? These writing are to teach and guide those of a certain religion in the way they should go and what to expect from God. In what ways should the nurse consider the importance of a patient’s religious sacred writings and symbols when providing health care? If a nurse comes across a Catholic patient, he/she may offer a rosary or bible so that the patient feels more secure and may even offer a spiritual support person to offer blessings, etc.
  9. 9. How is dress a manifestation of individual religious beliefs? Muslim women wear a hijab or chador to please the Islamic God (Allah) because it is a sign of respect to her husband, family, and Allah. Mormon women are required to dress in a conservative manner. What are the implications for the nurse? The nurse may counsel patient to not worry and could provide a more comfortable environment in which patient may feel secure to wear a gown, although contradicting their religion’s beliefs.
  10. 10. How do a person’s spiritual and/or religious beliefs relate to their cultural beliefs? Religion and spirituality is usually very closely related to culture. This is a stupid question lol….
  11. 11. How might a person’s diet be influenced by their religious or spiritual beliefs? For example, a Jewish person may eat meat but it must be Kosher. Muslims forbid eating any meat of the pig.
  12. 12. How might a patient/client view pain from a spiritual or religious belief? Some patients may view pain as a punishment for bad deeds and in return tolerate the pain without complaints. Some patients will hold on to their faith to relieve pain and use prayer to relieve pain.
  13. 13. What religious or spiritual practices may be important surrounding the birth experience? Christian religions that practice baptism during infancy may request a baptism done for a newborn who is suffering from a terminal illness because they believe that infants are born in sin. Jewish people believe in circumcision of males babies, etc.
  14. 14. What religious or spiritual practices may be important during the dying process and/or after death? Organ donation is usually discouraged or prohibited by some religions such as Islam, Jehovah’s Witness, etc. Cremation is discouraged in Islamic and Jewish faiths. Jehovah’s Witness are opposed to blood transfusions. Some Christian believers are unlikely to prolong life of a terminal patient, etc.
  15. 15. Spiritual distress is a nursing diagnosis that might be made for a patient/client. What are the characteristics associated with a diagnosis of spiritual distress? Expressions of hopelessness or a lack of meaning and purpose in life, expressions of being abandoned by God, expressions of anger towards a supreme being, requests to see a spiritual or religious counselor, etc.
  16. 16. What information should be obtained when conducting a spiritual assessment of a patient/client? Environment, behavior, verbalization, interpersonal relationships, etc. How can information from a spiritual assessment be helpful in planning and providing patient care? If you as a nurse are aware of the patient’s spiritual or religious traditions and/or beliefs, you may provide excellent care by offering a bible or rosary to a Catholic patient, the Qu’ran to a Muslim patient, or even offering spiritual counselors according to patient’s religion.
  17. 17. What is the relationship between the nurse’s spiritual and/or religious beliefs and the patient’s spiritual and/or religious beliefs? ANOTHER STUPID QUESTION LOL Whose beliefs take priority in the nurse/patient relationship? The nurse’s beliefs…DUH! LOL just kidding the patient’s…
  18. 18. Describe 15 strategies to support a patient/client’s religious beliefs/practices. Self-explanatory but they are on pg. 410
  19. 19. How can the nurse assist the client during prayer? If the patient requests the nurse’s presence or support in prayer, the nurse may pray to him/herself or out loud depending on if there are conflicting religious beliefs or not..
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