Personality Psych

  1. Individualistic Orientation
    • Emphasis on developing separate identy with own set of likes and dislikes
    • Independence and self reliance are valued
  2. Colletivistic Orientation
    • Emphasis is on the group or family identity
    • Conformity to group norms and compliance with authority is valued
  3. Self Concept
    • foundation of our sense of identity
    • organized sense of who we are
    • affect by culture in 2 ways:
    • ____a. content:
    • _________-what do I think about my self
    • _________-descriptive statements about the self
    • ____b. structure:
    • _________-why do I use these categories to describe myself
  4. Independent Self
    • uniqueness: how we are different from one another is important
    • autonomus: in control of our own behavior, independent of others
    • stable, internal attributes are central to sense of self: traits, abilities
  5. Bounded and separate sense of self
    • clear boundries between self and others
    • important distinction is between self and non self
    • important aspects lie within the individual
    • sense of self if very stable
    • found in individualistic cultures: US, other english speaking countries, western Europe
  6. Interdependent Self
    • uniqueness is not emphasized: how we are similar to others is important
    • connectedness to others is emphasized: group memberships, social roles
    • internal attributes are important but are not central to sense of self
  7. Interconnected/overlapping sense of self
    • no clear boundries between self and others
    • idenity it connected with others
    • key aspects of self lie at the intersections with relationships with others
    • internal aspects of identity are not important
    • found in collectivistic cultures: china, brazil, kenya, fiji
  8. Self Consistancy
    • Independant
    • ____a. self consistancy is more important
    • ____b. consistancy across situations is important
    • Interndependant
    • ____a. consistancy with others is more important
    • ____b. consistancy across situations is not important
  9. Types of data for Social Learning
    • carefully controlled lab studies
    • preference for using B data: direct observations that can be verified by others is important
    • also S data because self perceptions are importand and is has a causal influence on behavior
  10. Key Ideas: Social Learning
    • social learning theory = behaviorism + cognition
    • humans can learn by observing others
    • they can understand behavioral contingencies
    • ____a. "If I do X, then Y is likely to happen"
    • perceptions about consequences impact own behavior
  11. Rotter's Expectancy Value Theory
    BP = f( E & RV)

    • BP= behavioral potential: probability that you will perform the behavior
    • E= expectancies: the belief that your behavior will lead to the desired outcome
    • RV= reinforcement value: how much does the goal mean to you
  12. Other things to know about Rotter's Expectancy Value Theory
    • 2 different people can have a different BP in the same situation because their E and RV could be very different
    • people value things differently
    • generalize expectancies:
    • ____a. beliefs about wheter anything you do will produce desired outcomes
    • ____b. simiilar to self efficacy
    • Specific Expectancies:
    • ____a. belif that a certain behavior at a certain time and place will produce the desired behavior
    • dependent upon the psychological situation: change the situation, change the expectancies
  13. Bandura and Social Learning Theory
    • Obervational learning and modeling: can learn by observing others
    • Individual differences in patterning of behavior are the result of...
    • ____a. classical and operant conditioning: behavior that is reinforced is more likely to be repeated
    • ____b. observe others behavior: consequences of their behavior impact your likelihood of repeating that behavior
    • ____c. others serve as models for imitation and provide info about consequences: children learn by watching adults
  14. Importance of Self Efficacy
    • efficacy expectations
    • ____a. set of beliefs about our own ability to impact outcomes
    • ____b. belief that you can accomplish something successfully
    • similar to Rotter's Generalized Expectancies
    • if you impact self efficacy, you impact motivation and performance
    • ____a. what you think you can do matters
  15. Bandura's Reciprocal Determinism Model
    • the person, behavior, and environment all interact to determine one another
    • creates a triange
    • P <--> B interaction
    • ____a. what you think, percieve, and intend affects your behavior, and in turn, affects your personal characteristics
    • P <--> E interaction
    • ____a. personal characteristics evoke different responces from the environment, and in turn, affects the development of your personal characteristics
    • E <--> B interaction
    • ____a. behavior is controlled by the environment, but behavior can change the environment
  16. Evaluation
    • very optimistic about ability to change behavior
    • may overemphasize the situation too much
    • has stood up to many tests: empirically supported
  17. Types of Data for Cognitive Approach
    • carefully controlled lab studies
    • B data
    • L data: particularly for those studying life goals
    • I data
    • S data
  18. Key Ideas for Cognitive Approach
    • What you think about is the cause of what you do
    • Must understand thought process to understand behavior
    • Outgrowth of social learning theory, but also influenced by phenomonologists
  19. Mischel's Cognitive Affective Personality System (CAPS)
    • What you thnk about the world is all important
    • Personality is a stable system that mediates how an individual selects, construes, and processes social information and generates social behabior
  20. Cognitive Person Variables
    • Cognitive and behavioral construction compentencies
    • ____a. mental abilities, behavioral skills, IQ
    • Encoding strategies and personal constructs
    • ____a. ideas about how world is structured
    • ____b. efficacy expectations
    • ____c. beliefs about own compentencies
    • Self regulatory systems and plans
    • ____a. self control, self reinforcement, selection of situations
    • ____b. control over own throughts: self gratification study
    • Affects
    • ____a. feelings or emotions
  21. CAPS model as IF-THEN Statements
    • Personality is best conceived as a set of IF-THEN contingencies
    • ____a. IF a social person meets a stranger, THEN she will be friendly.
    • ____b. IF that person is shy, THEN she will withdraw
    • BUT....
    • ____c. it becomes more complicated when you add more situational contingencies
    • ____d. situations matter in Mischel's model
  22. Evaluation of Cognitive Approach
    • very influential approach
    • bridges gap with social psych
    • may not emphasize affect or emotion enough
    • behavior prediction is still difficult
    • strong empirical basis
Card Set
Personality Psych
Personality Psych Final