1. Gender Roles:
    • Expectations regarding proper behavior,
    • attitudes, and activities of males and females.

    • Most people do not display strictly
    • “masculine” or “feminine” qualities all the time.
  2. Gender-Role Socialization
    • An ideology of “gender differences”
    • assures perpetuation of gender inequality

    • –Girls are
    • supposed to be “feminine”:






    • –Boys are supposed
    • to be “masculine”:





  3. Ageism
    –Prejudice and discrimination based on age
  4. patriarchies
    • Societies
    • dominated by men. (more common)
  5. matriarchies
    • women
    • play the decisive roles.
  6. Sexism:
    • The ideology
    • that one sex is superior to the other.

    Male chauvinism, female separatism, etc.
  7. Gerontology:
    • Scientific study of the sociological and
    • psychological aspects of aging and problems of the aged.

    • Increase in life expectancy has led to
    • referring to people:

    • in their:
    • 60’s as
    • the “young old”

    in their 70’s as the “middle old”

    in their 80’s and above as the “old old”
  8. Nuclear Family:
    • Nucleus or core upon which larger
    • family groups are built. Father, mother,
    • children.
  9. Extended Family
    • A family type in which relatives
    • live in same home as parents and children.
  10. Egalitarian family
    • family in which spouses are regarded as
    • equals.
  11. Patriarchy:
    • Males are
    • expected to dominate in all family decision making
  12. Matriarchy:
    Women have greater authority than men.
  13. Polygamy:
    Multiple husbands or wives simultaneously
  14. Polygyny:
    • Marriage of a man to more than one
    • woman at a time
  15. Polyandry:
    • Marriage of a woman to more than
    • one husband at the same time
  16. Monogamy:
    • Form of marriage in which one woman
    • and one man are married only to each other
  17. Serial Monogamy:
    • A person
    • has several spouses in his or her lifetime, but only one at a
    • time.
  18. Endogamy:
    • Specifies groups from which a spouse must be found and
    • prohibits marriage with members of other groups.
  19. Exogamy:
    • Requires mate selection outside
    • certain groups, usually one’s own family or certain kin
  20. Homogamy:
    • The tendency
    • to select a mate with personal characteristics
    • similar to one’s own
  21. Education
    • The social institution that formally
    • socializes members of society
  22. The hidden curriculum
    (conflict view on education)
    Behaviors and attitudes deemed proper by society that are taught subtly in schools
  23. Credentialism
    • An increase in the lowest level of
    • education needed to enter a field.
  24. Homeschooling
    (More than 1.6 million children in US are
    • Alternative
    • for children with ADHD and LD.

    Homeschooled children score higher on standardized tests.

    Lack of social involvement potentially a problem.
  25. Religion
    A system of beliefs and practices relative to the sacred.
  26. Liberation Theology:
    • Belief that church should be used in political
    • efforts to eliminate poverty, discrimination and other forms of injustice
  27. Economy
    • Society’s way of producing, distributing, and consuming goods
    • and services.
    • Economies vary by different societies’
    • level of development and political ideology.
  28. Capitalism
    An economic system in which the means of production are held largely in private hands.

    The main incentive for economic activity is accumulation of profits.

    • Laissez-faire economics: “hands-off” economic system with
    • minimal government intervention.
  29. Socialism
    An economic system where the means of production and distribution are sometimes owned collectively rather than privately.
  30. Informal Economy
    • “Off-the-record” business, the transfer
    • of money, goods, or services not reported to the government.

    -Difficult to measure

    -In developing nations the informal economy represents a significant part of total economic activity
  31. The Power Elite - (C. Wright Mills)
    • The Power Elite: a small ruling elite of military,
    • industrial, and governmental leaders. A revolving door among them.
    • Power is in the hands of a few, inside and outside of government.
    • Mostly male, white, and upper-class
  32. Social Epidemiology
    The study of the distribution of disease, impairment, and general health status across a population
  33. Minority Group
    Subordinate group whose members have significantly less control or power over their own lives.
  34. Racial group
    Group set apart from others because of obvious physical dofferences.
  35. Ethnic group
    Group set apart from others primarily because of its national, origin or distinctive cultural patterns.
  36. Prejudice
    A negative attitude toward an entire category of people.
  37. Ethnocentrism
    Tendency to assume one's culture and way of life are superior to others.
  38. Racism
    The belief that one race is supreme and others are innately inferior.
  39. Discrimination
    The denial of opportunities and equal rights to individuals and groups based on some type of arbitrary bias.

    It persists even for
  40. Glass ceiling
    Invisible barrier blocking promotion of qualified individuals in work environment because of gender, race, or ethnicity.
  41. Amalgamation
    • When a majority group and minority group combine to form a new group.
    • Ex: african+asian+european+hispanic+middle eastern+native american="American"
  42. Assimilation
    When a person forsakes their own cultural tradition to become part of a different culture.

    To become Americanized= Acculturation
  43. Social Change
    A significant alteration over time in behavior patterns and culture.
  44. Relative deprivation
    The conscious feeling of a negative discrepancy between legitimate expectations and present realities.
  45. Vested interests
    People or groups who will suffer in the event of social change don't tend to support change.
  46. Culture lag
    Period of maladjustment when nonmaterial culture is still struggling to adapt to new material conditions.
  47. Luddites
    In response to the industrial revolution, some groups raided factories and destroyed machinery.
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