- Expectations regarding proper behavior,
- attitudes, and activities of males and females.
- Most people do not display strictly
- “masculine” or “feminine” qualities all the time.
- An ideology of “gender differences”
- assures perpetuation of gender inequality
- –Girls are
- supposed to be “feminine”:
- –Boys are supposed
- to be “masculine”:
–Prejudice and discrimination based on age
- dominated by men. (more common)
- play the decisive roles.
- The ideology
- that one sex is superior to the other.
Male chauvinism, female separatism, etc.
- Scientific study of the sociological and
- psychological aspects of aging and problems of the aged.
- Increase in life expectancy has led to
- referring to people:
- in their:
- 60’s as
- the “young old”
in their 70’s as the “middle old”
in their 80’s and above as the “old old”
- Nucleus or core upon which larger
- family groups are built. Father, mother,
- A family type in which relatives
- live in same home as parents and children.
- family in which spouses are regarded as
- Males are
- expected to dominate in all family decision making
Women have greater authority than men.
Multiple husbands or wives simultaneously
- Marriage of a man to more than one
- woman at a time
- Marriage of a woman to more than
- one husband at the same time
- Form of marriage in which one woman
- and one man are married only to each other
- A person
- has several spouses in his or her lifetime, but only one at a
- Specifies groups from which a spouse must be found and
- prohibits marriage with members of other groups.
- Requires mate selection outside
- certain groups, usually one’s own family or certain kin
- The tendency
- to select a mate with personal characteristics
- similar to one’s own
- The social institution that formally
- socializes members of society
The hidden curriculum
(conflict view on education)
Behaviors and attitudes deemed proper by society that are taught subtly in schools
- An increase in the lowest level of
- education needed to enter a field.
(More than 1.6 million children in US are
- for children with ADHD and LD.
Homeschooled children score higher on standardized tests.
Lack of social involvement potentially a problem.
A system of beliefs and practices relative to the sacred.
- Belief that church should be used in political
- efforts to eliminate poverty, discrimination and other forms of injustice
- Society’s way of producing, distributing, and consuming goods
- and services.
- Economies vary by different societies’
- level of development and political ideology.
An economic system in which the means of production are held largely in private hands.
The main incentive for economic activity is accumulation of profits.
- Laissez-faire economics: “hands-off” economic system with
- minimal government intervention.
An economic system where the means of production and distribution are sometimes owned collectively rather than privately.
- “Off-the-record” business, the transfer
- of money, goods, or services not reported to the government.
-Difficult to measure
-In developing nations the informal economy represents a significant part of total economic activity
The Power Elite - (C. Wright Mills)
- The Power Elite: a small ruling elite of military,
- industrial, and governmental leaders. A revolving door among them.
- Power is in the hands of a few, inside and outside of government.
- Mostly male, white, and upper-class
The study of the distribution of disease, impairment, and general health status across a population
Subordinate group whose members have significantly less control or power over their own lives.
Group set apart from others because of obvious physical dofferences.
Group set apart from others primarily because of its national, origin or distinctive cultural patterns.
A negative attitude toward an entire category of people.
Tendency to assume one's culture and way of life are superior to others.
The belief that one race is supreme and others are innately inferior.
The denial of opportunities and equal rights to individuals and groups based on some type of arbitrary bias.
It persists even for
Invisible barrier blocking promotion of qualified individuals in work environment because of gender, race, or ethnicity.
- When a majority group and minority group combine to form a new group.
- Ex: african+asian+european+hispanic+middle eastern+native american="American"
When a person forsakes their own cultural tradition to become part of a different culture.
To become Americanized= Acculturation
A significant alteration over time in behavior patterns and culture.
The conscious feeling of a negative discrepancy between legitimate expectations and present realities.
People or groups who will suffer in the event of social change don't tend to support change.
Period of maladjustment when nonmaterial culture is still struggling to adapt to new material conditions.
In response to the industrial revolution, some groups raided factories and destroyed machinery.