1. Gemeinshcaft
    Small scale- pre industrial.

    Small community in which people have similar backgrounds and life experiences (like Durkheim's "Mechanical Solidarity")- a sense of community "The Village"
  2. Gesellschaft
    Large-scale- industrial.

    • Large community in which people are strangers and feel little in common with other community residents (like Durheim's "Organic Solidarity").- urban isolation
    • "The Lonley Crowd"
  3. Groups:
    Any number of people with similar norms, values, and expectations who interact with each other on a regular basis
  4. Crowd
    People that coincide in one place but have different destinations and interests.
  5. Primary group
    Small group with intimate, face to face association and cooperation (ex:Family)
  6. Secondary group
    Impersonal groups with little social intimacy or mutual understandings (ex: class, conference)
  7. McDonaldization
    The process by which the principles of the fast-food restaurant are coming to dominate more and more sectors of American society as well as of the rest of the world
  8. Bureaucracy/ bureaucratization
    • "kafta-esqul"
    • The component of a formal organization that uses rules and hierarchical ranking to achieve efficiency. Administration.

    Process by which group, organization, or social movement becomes increasingly bureaucratic.
  9. Gatekeeping
    Tv shows, news stories, films, etc must travel through a series of (corporate-controlled)- check-points before reaching the public.
  10. The Dominant Ideology
    • A set of cultural beliefs and practices that help to maintain powerful social, economic, and political interests.
    • Mass media serve to maintain the existing system and the privileges of certain groups.
  11. Globalization
    The whole world becoming more and more similar culturally regardless of location.
  12. Comte
    Came up with concept of "Sociology"
  13. Durkeim
    • First official sociologist and professor of sociology.
    • Came up with the concept of "anomie".
    • Proved how sociology is a new and unique way to study people.
    • Had the idea that behavior must be understood with larger social context.
  14. Marx
    • Believed society is divided between two classes that clash in pursuit of interests: The Pourgeoise and Proletariat.
    • Emphasized group identification and associations that influence one's place in Society.
    • "Working class should overthrow existing class system".
  15. Cooley
    • Used Sociological perspective to look at face to face groups (families, etc...)
    • Is considered important to interactionism.
  16. Anomie
    Loss of direction felt by people.
  17. Alienation
    A feeling of dissatisfaction with your work and isolation from other people.
  18. Conflict theory
    • Asserts that society is best understood in terms of conflict or tension between competing groups.
    • Marxist View: conflict is part of everyday life in all societies .
  19. Functionalist theory
    Societies are structured to maintain stability like an Ecosystem that is kept in balance.
  20. Feminist theory
    • Mostly a variation on conflict theory.
    • Views inequity in gender as central to behavior and social organization. Focuses on micro level relationships.
  21. The Scientific Method
    Systematic organized series of steps that ensures maximum objectivity and consistency in researching a problem.
  22. Correlation
    When a change in one variable coincides with a change in another variable
  23. Casuality
    Relationships between variables
  24. Correlation vs. Causality
    Correlation does not necessarily indicates causation.
  25. Study samples
    • Random
    • Stratified
  26. Secondary data analysis
    Research that makes use of previously collected data such as the US census.
  27. Content analysis
    An objective recording and systematic coding of data guided by some rational such as counting incidents of some social phenomenon in tv programs.
  28. Culture
    Socially transmitted customs, knowledge, material objects and behaviors. Social heritage including ( ideas, values, customs, and artifacts of groups opeople
  29. Sociobiology
    • The study of how biology affects human social behavior.
    • Sociobiologists assert that many cultural traits are rooted in our genetic makeup
  30. Norms
    • Stablished standards of behavior maintained by society:
    • Ex: Folkways and Mores.
  31. Folkways
    Norms covering everyday behavior.
  32. Mores
    "serious" norms deemed to the welfare if society.
  33. Values
    Collective concepts of what is good, desirable, and proper or vise-versa.
  34. Sanctions
    Penalties and rewards for conduct concerning a social norm.
  35. Subculture
    A segment of society that shares distinctive patterns of mores, Folkways, and values. Ex: hip-hop
  36. Counterculture
    • A subculture that opposes certain aspects of the larger culture.
    • Ex: anarchists, hippies.
  37. Socialization
    Life long process (where people learn the attitudes, values, and behaviors appropriate for members of a particular culture)
  38. Anticipatory socalization
    The process of socialization in which a person rehearses future occupations and social relationships.
  39. Ascribed status
    A status one is born with. Ex: race, social class, region.)
  40. Achieved/acquired status
    • Status one chooses or earns.
    • Ex: educational level, marital status, profession.)
  41. Roles
    Sets of (behavioral expectations) for people who occupy a given status position
  42. Statuses
    • A socially defined position within a group or society.
    • Importance on a certain scale of command.
  43. Master status
    • Status that dominates others and determinate a person's general position in society.
    • Importance status in ways of how your life is going to be : ex (handicap)
  44. Socialization
    • Nature=Biology
    • Nurture=Social
  45. Feral Children
    Children who has lived isolated from human contact from a very young age, and has no or little experience of human care, loving or social behavior, and crucially, of human language. Some feral children have been confined by people (usually parents);
  46. The looking glass self
    • Cooley advanced the belief that we learn who we are by interacting with others; a phenomenon called the looking glass self...
    • Cooley said: " I am not what I think I am and I'm not what you think I am; I am what I think that you think I am..."
  47. Other-directedness
    Concept coined by David Riesman (The Lonely Crowd) referring to a personality type which seeks approval and acceptance from others-as apposed ti inner directedness- acting independently and according to a personal moral code
  48. Generalized Others
    • Concept used in a field called symbolic interactionism. It is the general notion that a person has of the common expectations that others have about actions and thoughts within a particular society.
    • Any time that an actor tried to imagine what is expected of them, they are taking on the perspective of the generalized other
  49. Goffman
    Interactionist sociologist
  50. Freud
    • Id=instinct and pleasure
    • Ego=selfish
    • Super ego= morality; good social behavior
  51. Rites of passage
    • Is a ritual event that
    • Arks a person's progress from one status to another
  52. Anticipatory socialization
    Is the process, facilitated by social interactions, in which a non-group-members learn to take on the values and standards of groups that they aspire to join. Process of changing one's attitudes and behaviors in preparation for a shit on one's role
  53. Roles
    Conflict= contradictory expectations
    Confusion= awkward moments where you don't know how to act.
  54. Self
    As people mature, their selves begin to reflect their concerns about reactions from others: both generalized others and significant others....

    Is a distant identity that srts us apart from others. It is not a static phenomenon , but continues to
  55. Life course approach
    Look closely at the social factors that influence people throughout their lives from birth to death including gender and income.
  56. Resociization
    Refers to the process of discarding former behavior patterns and accept g new ones as part of a transition in one's life.
  57. Total institution
    Refers to an institution that regulates all aspects of a person life under a single authority , such as the prison, the military, a me tal hospital, or a convent.
  58. Socialization
    Affects the overall cultural practices of a society; it also shapes the images that we hold of ourselves.
  59. Impression management
    Goffman has shown that in many of our daily activities, we try to convey distinct impressions of who we are, process called impression management
  60. In everyday speech, the term ______ is used to refer to a person's typical patterns, attitudes, needs, characteristics, and behavior.
  61. Studies of twins raised apart suggests that both____ and _____ influence human development
    Heredity and environment
  62. Those individuals who are most important in shaping a person's identity ( parents, friends, coworkers and teachers) are referred to as
    Significant others
  63. Preparations for many aspects of adult life begins with _____ socialization during childhood....
  64. Resocialization is particularly effective when it occurs within a ____ institution
  65. The _______ perspective emphasizes the role of schools in teaching the values and customs of a larger society
  66. In-group
    Any group or category to which people feel they belong.
  67. Organic solidarity
    A collective consciousness that rests on mutual interdependence, characteristic of societies with complex division of labor
  68. Out-group
    A group or category to which people feel they do not belong.
  69. Role conflict
    The situation that occurs when incompatible expectations arise from two or more social positions held by the same person.
  70. Social network
    Series of social relationships that links a person to another....
  71. Social role
    A set of expectations for people who occupy a given social position or status.
  72. Role strain
    The difficulty that arises when the same social position imposes conflicting demands and expectations
  73. One positive consequence of bureaucracy is that it reduces bias. Reduction of bias results from which characteristic of bureaucracy?
  74. According to Durkheim, societies with minimal division of labor are characterized by _____ solidarity, while those with complex division of labor are characterized by ____ solidarity
  75. Mechanical, organic
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