1. Affirmative action
    Positive efforts to recruit minority group members or women for jobs, promotions and educational opportunities.
  2. Amalgamation*
    The process through which a majority group and a minority group combine to form a new group.
  3. Anti-Semitism
    Anti-Jewish prejudice
  4. Assimilation*
    The process through which a person forsakes his or her own cultural tradition to become part of a different culture.
  5. Discrimination
    The denial of opportunities and equal rights to individuals and groups because because of prejudice or other arbitrary reasons.
  6. Glass ceiling
    An invisible barrier that blocks the promotion of a qualified individual in a work environment because of the individual's gender, race, or ethnicity.
  7. Institutional discrimination
    The denial of opportunities and equal rights to individuals and groups that results from the normal operations of a society.
  8. Minority group
    A subordinate group whose members have significantly less control or power over their own lives than the members of a dominant or majority group have over theirs.
  9. Prejudice
    A negative attitude toward an entire category of people, often an ethnic or racial minority
  10. Racism
    The belief that one race is supreme and all others are innately inferior.
  11. Stereotype
    An unreliable generalization about all members of a group that does not recognize individual differences within the group
  12. Gender role
    Expectations regarding the proper behavior, attitudes, and activities of males and females.
  13. Sexism
    The ideology that one sex is superior to the other.
  14. Institutional discrimination
    The denial of opportunities and equal rights to individuals and groups that results from the normal operations of a society.
  15. Credentialism
    An increase in the lowest level of education required to enter a field.
  16. Hidden curriculum
    Standards of behavior that are deemed proper by society and are taught subtly in schools.
  17. Liberation theology
    Use of a church, primarily Roman Catholicism, in a political effort to eliminate poverty, discrimination, and other forms of injustice from a secular society.
  18. Charismatic authority
    Power made legitimate by a leader's exceptional personal or emotional appeal to his or her followers.
  19. Rational-legal authority
    Power made legitimate by law.
  20. Traditional authority
    Legitimate power conferred by custom or accepted practice.
  21. Social movement
    Organized collective activity to bring about or resist fundamental change in an existing group or society.
  22. Postindustrial society
    A society whose economic system is engaged primarily in the processing and control of information.
  23. The Protestant Ethic
    Max Weber's term for the disciplined work ethic, this-worldly concerns, and rational orientation to life emphasized by John Calvin and his followers.
  24. Vital statistics
    Statistics concerning the important events in human life, such as births, deaths, marriages, and migrations.
  25. Census
    • An official, usually periodic enumeration of a population, often including the collection of related demographic information.
    • 2. In ancient Rome, a count of the citizens and an evaluation of their property for taxation purposes.
  26. New social movement
    An organized collective activity that addresses values and social identities, as well as improvements in the quality of life.
  27. Resource mobilization
    The way social movement utilizes such resources as money, political influence, access to the media, and personnel.
  28. Social movements are more structured than any other forms of collective behavior and persist over longer periods.
    • New social movements ten to focus on more than just economic issues, and often cross national boundaries.
    • Advanced in communications technology have had a major impact in social movements.
  29. Social movements start because of Relative Deprivation:
    • This is a feeling of negative discrepancy between legitimate expectations and present realities.
    • People feel the have a right to their goals.
    • People perceive they cannot attain their goals through conventional means.
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