chapter 15

  1. the study of factors and mechanisms involved in the frequency and spread of diseases and other health related prolems within populations of humans, other aminals, or plants
  2. scientists who study epidemiology, may consider such health-related problems as automobile accidents, lead poisoning, or cigarette smoking
  3. the cause of a disease
  4. the number of new cases contracted within a set population during a specific period of time
  5. the total number of people infected within the population at any given time
  6. the number of individuals affected by the disease during a set period of time
    morbidity rate
  7. the number of deaths due to a disease in a population during a specific period in relation to the total population
    mortality rate
  8. a disease present continually in the populatiopn of a particular geographical are but both the number of reported cases and the severity of the disease remain too low to constitute a public health problem
  9. arises when a disease suddenly has a higher-than-normal incidence in a population
  10. occurs when an epidemic spreads world-wide
  11. occurs in a random and unpredicted manner
    sporadic disease
  12. an epidemic that airses from contact with contaminated substances
    common-source outbreak
  13. arises from direct person-to-person contacts (horizontal transmission)
    propagated epidemic
  14. collecting frequency data and drawing conclusions are the foundation of
    spedemiologic study
  15. an epodemiologic study that notes the number of cases of a disease which segments of the population are affected, where the cases have occurred, and over what time period
    descriptive study
  16. focuses on establishing cause-and-effect relationships in the occurrance of disease in populations
    analytical study
  17. designs experiments to test a hypothesis, often about the value of a particulat treatment.
    experimental study
  18. nonmedicinal substance that has no effect on the recipient but that the repicient believes is the treatment
  19. site where microorganisms can persist and maintain their ability to infect
    reservoir of infection
  20. individuals who harbor an infectious agent without having any observable clinical signs or symptoms
  21. an infection with signs and symptoms too mild to be recognized, except by special tests
    • subclinical
    • inapparent infection
  22. diseases that can be transmitted under natural conditions to humans from other vertebrates
  23. in what ways can contact transmission happen
    • direct
    • indirect
    • droplet
  24. requires body contact between individuals by shkaing hands, kissing, touching sores, or having sex. AKA horizontal transmission
    direct contact transmission
  25. pathogens are passed from parent to offspring in an egg or sperm across the placenta
    vertical transmission
  26. occurs through fomites or non-living objects that can harbor and transmit an infectious agent
    indirect contact transmission
  27. transmission that occurs through a cough, sneeze or speaking
    droplet transmission
  28. consists of dried mucus, which protects microorganisms embedded in it
    droplet nucei
  29. is a nonliving carrier of an infectious agent from its reservoir to a susceptible host.
  30. where do indirect fecal-oral transmissions commonly occur
    waterborne transmission
  31. a cloud of tiny water droplets or fine solid particles suspended in the air
  32. living organisms that transmit disease to humans
  33. trasmit pathogens passively on their feet
    mechanical vectors
  34. transmit pathogens actively; the infectious agent must complete part of its life cycle in the vector before the insect can transmit the infective form of the mirobe
    biological vector
  35. the proportion of individuals in a community or population who are immune to a particular disease
    heard immunity
  36. a patient with a communicable disease is prevented by having contact with the general population
  37. the seperation of "healthy" human or animal carriers from the general population when they have been exposed to a communicable disease
  38. majorly responsible for the control and prevention of infectious diseases and other preventable conditions
  39. an international agency that coordinates and sets up programs to improve health in more than 100 member countries
  40. infectious diseases that are potentially harmful to the publics health and must be reported by physicians
    notifiable diseases
  41. an infection acquired in a hospital or other medical facility
    nosocomial infection
  42. caused by organisms that enter the patient from the environment
    exogenous infection
  43. caused by opportunitst among the patient's own normal microflora
    endogenous infections
  44. people who are much more susceptible to infection
    compromised hosts
  45. the guidelines that the CDC set forth
    universal precautions
  46. what is epidemiology
    the study of factors and mechanisms in the spread of diseases in a population
  47. true or false
    quarantine is used to prevent a patient with a communicable disease from having contact with the general population
  48. persons in a population who become clinically ill during a specified period of time
  49. the number of sick individuals in a population at a particular time
    prevalence rate
  50. the number of new cases of a disease in a population during a defined period of time
    incidence rate
  51. the number of deaths during a specific period of time
    mortality rate
  52. true or false
    the incidence rate can indicate whether there is an increase or decrease in the spread of a disease while the prevalence rate measures how seriously or long the disease is affecting a population
  53. an infectious agent that is continually present in a population located in a specific geographical location but has both the number of reported cases and the severity of the disease too low to constitute a public health problem is known as:

    C) endemic
  54. what is the term used when a disease with a higer-than-normal incidence within a population that poses a public health problem suddenly spreads world-wide:

    C) pandemic
  55. what is the term used when the morbidity and/or mortality rate in a population becomes high enough to pose a public health problem:

    A) epidemic
  56. an epidemiological study focusing on cause and effect relationships in the occurrance of a disease in a population and in which factors preceding as epidemic are condisered is known as a _ _ study
    analytical retrospective
  57. an epidemiological study in which an investigator tests th hypothesis that a particular treatment will be effective in controlling a disease for which no accepted cure is available is know as a _ study
  58. because most pathogens cannot survive for extended periods of time outside the body they must persist within _ in order to maintain their ability to infect:

    B) reservoirs of infection
  59. Salmonella typhi has the ability to persist within the gallbladder of humans while causing no clinical symptoms. The infected individual is still contagious, however, and would be considered a:

    C) carrier
  60. vertical transmission refers to transmission of a pathogen for a:

    D) parent to offspring before or during birth
  61. A disease in which a person contracts rabies virus after interaction with an infected raccoon whould be known as a _ disease:

    B) zoonotic
  62. all of the following could be considered as reservoirs of infection except:

    B) your cousin
  63. fomites mode of tansmission
    indirect contact
  64. bar of soap mode of transmission
    indirect contact
  65. kissing mode of transmission
  66. speaking mode of transmission
  67. hand shaking mode of transmission
  68. food mode of transmission
  69. housefly mode of tansmission
    mechanical vector
  70. mothers breast-feeding her infant mode of transmission
  71. anopheles mosquito mode of transmission
  72. stepping on a rusty nail mode of transmission
    indirect contact
  73. w
  74. which of the following would not be considered a disease vector:

    A) handkerchief
  75. which of the following are ways in which bioterrorism could be exerted:

    E) all of the above
  76. diseases that are potentially harmful to the public's health and must be reported by physicians are called:

    E) notifiable disease
  77. hospital-acquired infections are called:

    D) nosocomial infections
  78. which of the following would not be considered a compromised host:

    A) healthy individuals
  79. all of the following can help prevent nosocomial infections except:

    D) patients remaining in bed
  80. the extensive use of antibiotics as well as gene transfer has led to more virulent, antibiotic-resistant strains of all of the following organisms except:

    D) Influenza
  81. universal precautions apply to all of the following bodily fluids except:

    D) tears
  82. dried mucus that contains potential pathogens
    droplet nuclei
  83. naturally occurring aminal disease that may be transmitted to humans accidentally
  84. caused by external microbes that enter a patients body
    exogenous infection
  85. inanimate objects contaminated with pathogens
  86. caused by opportunists in body's normal flora
    endogeneous infection
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chapter 15