What is anxiety?
- Emotional reaction to a stressor precieved as dangerous.
- Negative emotion, multidimensional, facial expressions.
- Anxeity was considered to be a unidimensional concept equivalent to arousal.
What is arousal?
Blend of physiological and psychological activation of an individuals ANS, unidimensional.
What is state anxiety?
Intensity of anxiety at specific time.
What is trait anxiety?
Stable part of personality, individuals tendency to experience elevation to stressors.
What is cognitive and somatic anxiety?
- Cognitive= in your head, reflects concerns and reduced ability to concentrate
- Somatic= physical, perception of physiological that develope from autonomic arousal.
What are 3 ways to assess anxiety?
- 1. Observation of Behaviour
- 2. Physiological Indicator
- 3. Self Report
What is MAT?
- Multidimensional Anxiety Theory
- - anxiety is addictive
What is ZOF?
- Zones of Optimal Functioning Theory
- - everyone has their own zone with anxiety
- - best sport performance occurs with optimal levels of anxiety.
What is motor skills?
- Goal to achieve
- Performed Voluntarily
- Body movements
- Needs to be learned
What are the 3 one-dimensional systems of motor skill classification?
- 1) Size of muscularity
- -Gross Motor Skills- large muscles, smooth cordination of muscles essential, precision of movement not important.
- -Fine Motor Skills- small muscles to achieve goal, high degree of precision of movement.
- 2) Distinctiveness of Movements
- - Discrete (defined beginning/end) Seruial (discrete motor skills performed in specific order) Continuous (no obvious beginning or end)
- 3) Stability of Environment
- - Closed Motor Skills (stable environment)
- - Open Motor Skills (ever changing environment)
What are 2 ways to measure motor performance?
- 1) Outcome measures- measures outcome/results of performing motor skills
- 2) Process measures- measures aspects of motor control system are functioning during performance of an action (muscles)
(3) Performance Outcome Measures
- 1) Reation time: time interval b/w signal and initiation of movement (simple, choice, discrimination)
- A) Premotor Time
- B) Motor Time
- 2) Movement Time: time interval b/w start of movement and completion
- 3) Performance Errors: determine if goal of movement was achieved (absolute, constant, variable)
How do you calculate AE, CE, VE?
AE= E [X-y]/ K
CE= E (X-y)/K
- VE= standard deviation of performance
- = Square root of E (x-x)^2/N-1
Performance Proccess Measures>
- A) kinamatics- motion qualities without force (displacement, velocity, acceleration)
- B) kinetics- internal/external forces acting on body
- C) EMG- electrical activity in muscle
- D) Coordination- relationship of limbs in time/space
Summary of information processing model
- 1)Senssory System- detects environmental info
- 2)Perceptual System- organizes environmental info
- 3)Memory- stores info for later retrieval
- 4)Response Organization and effector mechanism- organizes appropriate motor commands and sends them to muscles
What is performance?
What is learning?
Must be inferred with behaviour
When has learning occured?
- change over time
- more constitant performance
- change is relatively permanent
What are the 3 stages of learning?
- 1) cognitive stage- large # errors, lots feedback, highly variable performance, high cognitive envolvement
- 2) associative stage- fewer errors, detect own errors, basic fundamentals have been learned, decreased variability
- 3) autonomous stage- little error, becomes automatic, established internal standard of performance that allows for detection of errors.
What is transfer of learning?
Skills and knowledge that were learned previously in a practise, and are transferred to another learning situation/new skill
Name the 3 types of transfer of learning
- 1) Positive- experience with previous skill facilities the learning of a new skill, compenents of skills are similar, similair b/w learning processes
- EX: same decision making in practice as in games
- 2) Negative- experience with previous skill interferes with the learning of a new skill, changes in spatial location, changes in timing
- 3) Zero- experience with previous skill has NO EFFECT on the learning on a new skill
What are 3 instructional methods for promoting transfer?
- 1) Provide contextual interference
- - practice several different skills during practice session
- 2) Vary the type of practice
- - practice many variations of ONE SKILL in variety of contexts
- 3) Reduce Feedback
- - rely on their own internal feedback
What are the 2 types of practice?
- 1) BLOCKED- task practiced consective trials before next take, repeated, learners can correct own errors, important for beginnners
- 2) RANDOM- ordering of tasks randomized during practice, effective when skill is developed.
what are the 2 practice variabilities?
- 1) CLOSED SKILL- always the same, free throw
- 2) OPEN SKILL- constantly changing, surfing
What is augmented feedback?
Information about performance from an outside source.
What are 3 purposes of outside feedback?
- 1) provides info for error identification or correctness
- 2) acts as a form of reinforcement
- 3) motivates the learner
What are 4 forms of feedback
- 1- verbal
- 2- kinematic
- 3- video
- 4- augmented feedback
What are the 3 MAIN typees of feedback
- 1) Faded- lots of feedback because its for beginners, then as they improve feedback is less
- 2) Bandwidth- no feedback if its correct, lack of feedback is encouraged because person isnt changing, feedback only on errors, and eventually faded feedback occurs
- 3) Summary- athlete does many trials before giving feedback, avoids overloading the learner
What are 3 mental training programs?
- 1) Practice- athletes implement mental skills in practice, the goal is to auntomate skills through over learning
- 2) Education- athletes recognize importance of mental skills in performance
- 3) Acquisition- athletes require mental skills and learn how to employ them
3 types of goals
- 1) Outcome- focus on results
- 2) Performance- focus on improvements of performane
- 3) Process- specify procedures during performance
What is muscle-to-mind and mind-to-muscle?
- Muscle to mind= breathing exercises
- Mind to muscle= meditation
What is imagery?
Using one's senses to re-create an experience in the mind
What is external and internal imagery?
- External= videotape
- Internal= own sight
What is self talk?
- verbalization that address to the self
- multidimensional and dynamic
What are 2 things with self talk?
- 1) instructional- skill developement, execution, strategy development, general performance improvement
- 2) motivational- mastery (mentally ready), arousal (relaxing), drive (increasing effort)
What is team building?
- Enhance team's cohesion and performance
- 1) Direct Intervention- consultant works with athletes/team
- 2) Indirect Intervention- consultant works with coach/leader