Music 109

  1. During what period did Beethoven compose his works
    The age of political revolutions, such as that of Napoleon Bonaparte
  2. Who was the most significant figure in music history?
  3. Beethoven became totally death in what year, and at what age?
    in 1820, at age 50
  4. Beethoven's first period
    • (until 1800)
    • - Assimilation and finding personal voice
    • - Builds on Classical style of Haydn and Mozart
  5. Beethoven's second period
    • (1800-1818)
    • - Heroic style (Eroica and Fifth Sympthony)
  6. Beethoven's third period
    • (1818-1827)
    • - More abstract, introspective, serene
  7. Who was Beethoven a studen of?
  8. Eroica
    Beethoven's piece written to portray his admiration for Napoleon's bravery. Originally was called Bonaparte, until Napoleon declared himself emperor
  9. Romantic music
    music that mirrored ones inner feeling
  10. Rubato
    • Italian tempo - meaning robbed time
    • refers to the flexible handling of rhythm as it speeds up and slows down
    • It allows for individual expressivity
  11. Romantic melody
    much more emotional than before with a wider melodic range
  12. Romantic harmony
    new chords and progressions, use all of 12 notes in chromatic scale
  13. Romantic orchestra
    Grew much bigger and composers had much more freedom
  14. Beethoven replaced the Minuet with the...
  15. Scherzo
    Substitutes for the minuet with a more humerous mood and a much faster tempo
  16. Program Music
    • Nonvocal music written in association with a literary source
    • Tells a story, paints a mood
  17. Form of Romantic music
    Inner form is more important than outer form
  18. Miniature compositions
    • Pieces that last only a few minutes, mostly songs and short piano pieces
    • Convey a particular, momentary emotion
  19. Grandiose compositions
    • Larger and longer works, with more instruments
    • often blended poetry, philisophical or religious idease, and drama
  20. Thematic transformation
    Use one theme throughout entire work, constantly manipulating it
  21. Lied
    • German song, important Romantic miniature genre
    • Romantic song with piano, that echoes the poem's meaning
  22. Strophic songs
    use the same music for all stanzas, often when stanzas are all similar in construction
  23. Through-Composed songs
    • Use different music for each stanza
    • Often used for poems with frequent changes of mood or voice
  24. Franz Schubert
    • Earliest master of the Lied
    • died at age 31 from typhoid epidemic
    • Vienna
  25. Erlking
    Demon that takes the child from his father on the horse, father cannot see him
  26. Song Cycle
    a group of songs with a common theme
  27. Robert Schumann
    • Piano virtuoso
    • Wrote music for piano, orchestra, and chamber
    • Founded the New music Journal
    • Attempted suicide
  28. Character piece
    short piano piees meant to portray a distinct mood or character like a Lied, but without words
  29. Frederic Chopin
    • Pianist of miraculous ability and delicacy
    • earned ravews from Schumann at age 20
    • composed explusively for piano
    • Died of TB at age 38
  30. Nocturne
    • Chopin wrote these as night pieces
    • singing quality, with melodic decorations in relaxed rubato
  31. Program Music
    Instrumental music associated with poems, stories
  32. Franz Liszt
    • Hungarian composer who played for Beethoven at age 11
    • Virtuoso pianist based in paris
    • Second career as a conductor in Wimar
  33. Symphonic Poems
    a one-movement orchestral work with a program
  34. Concert Overture
    • Single-movement orchestral work for concert performance
    • often based on a play, long poem, or novel
  35. Felix Mendelssohn
    • Upper-class family of bankers
    • successful composer, pianist, organist, conductor, and educator
    • Founded leipzig Conservatory
  36. Hector Berlioz
    • Wrote unprecedented program symphonies
    • inspired by literature (Shakespeare, Virgil)
    • Toured as a conductor of his own music
    • Wrote treatises on orchestration and conducting
  37. Program Symphony
    • Romantic's most grandiose orchestral genre
    • An entire symphony with a program
  38. Idee fixe
    • "fixed idea" - a term popular in medical literature of the day
    • Using the same idea but augmenting it
  39. Romantic Opera
    no longer for entertainment, it is taken quite seriously
  40. Giuseppe Verdi
    • Wrote Rigoletto
    • Elected Deputy to the first Italian Parliament
    • All of Italy mourned his death at age 88
    • Son of small town storekeeper in north Italy
  41. Verdi
    • Greatest Italian Romantic opera composer
    • Cared most about drama
    • Real people, real situations, real emotions
  42. Recitative
    • No longer an apt term
    • Highly dramatic action music
    • verges on full-fledged melody
  43. Arias
    • formally complete and distinct
    • Often use simple strophic form
  44. Rigoletto
    • Composed by Verdi
    • based on a play by Victor Hugo
    • About a hunchbacked court jester
  45. Aida
    • Written for Cairo opera house
    • One of the most frequently performed operas
    • Tragic love triangle in time of war
  46. Richard Wagner
    • Must influential Romantic composer after Beethoven
    • Developed elaborate theories on art, music, and opera
    • Found arias hopelessly artificial
    • Though opera had degenerated to "concert in costume"
  47. Wagner...
    • Born in Leipzig
    • began career as an opera conductor
    • Gained support of King Ludwig II of Bavaria
    • Built his own opera house in Bayreuth specifically for his "music dramas"
  48. Wagner....
    • First marriage ended in divorce
    • Affair with the poet Mathilde Wesendonck
    • Second marriage to Cosima Liszt (daughter of Franz Liszt)
    • Half con man, half visionary
  49. Music Drama
    • Wagner's new kind of opera
    • Based on concept of music, poetry, drama, and philosophy all being equally important
    • Based on old German myths and legends
  50. Leitmotives
    • Guiding, or leading motives
    • Associated with a person, thing, idea, or symbol in the drama
    • made use of thematic transformation
  51. Ring of the Nibelung
    • Huge four-opera cycle
    • Drawn from Norse legends
    • Critique of middle-class values of the day
  52. Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky
    • Music not a "respecable" career
    • Professor at Moscow Conservatory
    • Subsidized by wealthy recluse
    • studied at St. Petersburg conservatory
  53. Concert Overture
    • Single-movement orchestra work for concert performance
    • often based on play, long peom, or novel
  54. Exoticism
    Composers often evoked sounds of cultures other than their own
  55. Nationalism
    There were struggles for independence throughout Europe, and a growing consciousness of national character
  56. Modest Mussorgsky
    • The most radical of the fire Russion nationalists
    • Wrote operas, songs, program works
    • held military and clerical positions
    • Unstable personality, filled with doubts
    • Died at 42 from alcoholism and epilepsy
  57. Romanticism fading
    • In 1850, Romantic music began to seem out of place
    • moved in different direction
  58. Johannes Brahms
    • Son of a bassist in Hamburg
    • Started musical studies at age 7
    • Later played piano in taverns
    • Befriended the Schumanns at age 20
    • Opposed to Wagner's music
  59. Gustav Mahler
    • Born into dysfunctional family
    • Musical training at Vienna conservatory
    • Pursued career as a conductor
    • Did not write opera
    • Wrote huge symphonies
Card Set
Music 109
Exam 4