Are all antiparasitic drugs for pets and livestock available by prescription only?
no-many are availale OTC - over the counter
What does "OTC" mean?
over the counter - available without a prescription at grocery stores, pet stores, drug stores, etc.
Why do veterinarians and LVTs need to know about OTC antiparasitic drugs?
owners will ask questions about them. also, pets can become poisoned by them
List 3 reasons to use antiparasitic drugs.
- health of the patient
- productivity and performance - active, proper weight gain.
- zoonotic potential - prevent parasites from carrying disease to people.
List 4 characteristics of the ideal antiparasitic drug.
- toxic to the parasite but not to the host
- does not induce resistnace in the parasite
- easy to use
List 4 principles of using antiparasitics.
- administer so drug reaches site of parasite
- know life cycle of parasite
- use with caution in debilitated, old, very young, or pregnant animals
- be familiar with the products in your practice
Should all antiparasitics be given PO? Explain.
no. some are - for example, to treat for parasites in the gut lumen. some are not - for example, topical application for fleas.
Is it important to know the life cycle of the flea in order to effectively treat your pet for fleas?
Do you need to become an expert in every type of antiparasitic drug available? Explain.
no - there are too many. you should, however, know the ones available in your practice very well
Your client's 8 week old puppy has fleas. does she need to worry about her older dog getting fleas, too?
List the different formulations that antiparasitic drugs are available in.
- oral liquid
- pour on
- spot on
- rub on
- rubbing bar
- dust bag
What is an endoparasite drug?
drug used to treat parasites within the patient's body, such as roundworms, hookworms, whipworms, and strongyles
What is an ectoparasite drug?
drugs used to treat parasites on the outside of the patient's body, such as fleas, ticks and mites
What is an endectocide drug?
drugs used to kill both endoparasites and ectoparasites
List 3 main classes of endoparasite drugs.
- antinematodal drugs
- anticestodal drugs
- antiprotozoal drugs
What are nematodes? List 4 types of nematodes.
- worms that are round in cross section, unsegmented
- ascarids, hookworms, whipworms, strongyles
What are cestodes?
tapeworms - flatworms - flat in cross section, segmented
What are protozoa?
single celled organisms, include Coccidia, Giardia, Toxoplasma
List 5 classes or types of antinematodal drugs.
macrolides (avermectins, milbemycins), benzimidazoles, pyrantel, piperazine, imidazothiazoles
What 2 classes of drugs are subcategories of macrolides?
List 2 types of avermectin drugs.
- ivermectin - Ivomec
- selamectin - Revolution
List 2 types of milbemycin drugs used as antiparasitics
- milbemycin - Interceptor
- moxidectin - Quest
List 2 types of milbemycin drugs used as antimicrobials.
What is the mechanism of acction of the macrolide antiparasitic drugs?
stimulate the parasites' glutamate receptors - causes them to become paralyzed and die.
Why aren't mammals affected by these drugs?
their glutamate receptors are protected by their blood-brain barrier.
List some trade names of ivermectin
- Heartgard Plus
What breed of dog may have adverse reactions to ivermectin?
collies, collie crosses, certain other breeds (shetland, sheepdogs (shelties), australian shepherds, old english sheepdogs, german shepherds, long-haired whippets, silken windhounds, and a variety of mixed breed dogs
List some of the adverse reactions to ivermectin that may occur in collies, etc.
- may progress to respiratory depression and death
List 4 types of benzimidazoles.
- thiabendazole - Tresaderm
- fenbendazole - Panacur
List some trade names for pyrantel or product containing pyrantel.
- Heartgard Plus
What color is pyrantel?
How safe is pyrantel?
Pyrantel treats what parasites in dogs and cats?
Do pet owners usually obtain piperazine from a veterinary hospital or from a non-veterinary source?
non-veterinary source - grocery store, pet store, department store
Piperazine treats what parasites in dogs and cats?
List 2 types of imidazothiazoles.
What common product includes febantel?
Drontal Plus - praziquantel + pyrantel + febantel
Name the 2 main types of anticestodal drugs.
praziquantel (Droncit, Drontal, Drontal Plus), epsiprantel (Cestex)
List 5 types of antiprotozoal drugs, and the specific protozoa that they affect.
- sulfadimethoxine (Albon) - coccidia
- amprolium (Corid) - coccidia
- metronidazole (Flagyl) - giardia
- fenbendazole (Panacur) - giardia
- ponazuril (Marquis) - sarcocystis neurona