Antiparasitic 1

  1. Are all antiparasitic drugs for pets and livestock available by prescription only?
    no-many are availale OTC - over the counter
  2. What does "OTC" mean?
    over the counter - available without a prescription at grocery stores, pet stores, drug stores, etc.
  3. Why do veterinarians and LVTs need to know about OTC antiparasitic drugs?
    owners will ask questions about them. also, pets can become poisoned by them
  4. List 3 reasons to use antiparasitic drugs.
    • health of the patient
    • productivity and performance - active, proper weight gain.
    • zoonotic potential - prevent parasites from carrying disease to people.
  5. List 4 characteristics of the ideal antiparasitic drug.
    • toxic to the parasite but not to the host
    • does not induce resistnace in the parasite
    • inexpensive
    • easy to use
  6. List 4 principles of using antiparasitics.
    • administer so drug reaches site of parasite
    • know life cycle of parasite
    • use with caution in debilitated, old, very young, or pregnant animals
    • be familiar with the products in your practice
  7. Should all antiparasitics be given PO? Explain.
    no. some are - for example, to treat for parasites in the gut lumen. some are not - for example, topical application for fleas.
  8. Is it important to know the life cycle of the flea in order to effectively treat your pet for fleas?
  9. Do you need to become an expert in every type of antiparasitic drug available? Explain.
    no - there are too many. you should, however, know the ones available in your practice very well
  10. Your client's 8 week old puppy has fleas. does she need to worry about her older dog getting fleas, too?
  11. List the different formulations that antiparasitic drugs are available in.
    • pill
    • oral liquid
    • injectable
    • powder
    • spray
    • dip
    • shampoo
    • pour on
    • spot on
    • rub on
    • collar
    • tag
    • rubbing bar
    • dust bag
  12. What is an endoparasite drug?
    drug used to treat parasites within the patient's body, such as roundworms, hookworms, whipworms, and strongyles
  13. What is an ectoparasite drug?
    drugs used to treat parasites on the outside of the patient's body, such as fleas, ticks and mites
  14. What is an endectocide drug?
    drugs used to kill both endoparasites and ectoparasites
  15. List 3 main classes of endoparasite drugs.
    • antinematodal drugs
    • anticestodal drugs
    • antiprotozoal drugs
  16. What are nematodes? List 4 types of nematodes.
    • worms that are round in cross section, unsegmented
    • ascarids, hookworms, whipworms, strongyles
  17. What are cestodes?
    tapeworms - flatworms - flat in cross section, segmented
  18. What are protozoa?
    single celled organisms, include Coccidia, Giardia, Toxoplasma
  19. List 5 classes or types of antinematodal drugs.
    macrolides (avermectins, milbemycins), benzimidazoles, pyrantel, piperazine, imidazothiazoles
  20. What 2 classes of drugs are subcategories of macrolides?
    • avermectins
    • milbemycins
  21. List 2 types of avermectin drugs.
    • ivermectin - Ivomec
    • selamectin - Revolution
  22. List 2 types of milbemycin drugs used as antiparasitics
    • milbemycin - Interceptor
    • moxidectin - Quest
  23. List 2 types of milbemycin drugs used as antimicrobials.
    • erythromycin
    • tylosin
  24. What is the mechanism of acction of the macrolide antiparasitic drugs?
    stimulate the parasites' glutamate receptors - causes them to become paralyzed and die.
  25. Why aren't mammals affected by these drugs?
    their glutamate receptors are protected by their blood-brain barrier.
  26. List some trade names of ivermectin
    • Ivomec
    • Heartgard
    • Heartgard Plus
    • Acarexx
  27. What breed of dog may have adverse reactions to ivermectin?
    collies, collie crosses, certain other breeds (shetland, sheepdogs (shelties), australian shepherds, old english sheepdogs, german shepherds, long-haired whippets, silken windhounds, and a variety of mixed breed dogs
  28. List some of the adverse reactions to ivermectin that may occur in collies, etc.
    • mydriasis
    • ataxia
    • depression
    • salivation
    • may progress to respiratory depression and death
  29. List 4 types of benzimidazoles.
    • thiabendazole - Tresaderm
    • oxibendazole
    • mebendazole
    • fenbendazole - Panacur
  30. List some trade names for pyrantel or product containing pyrantel.
    • Nemex
    • Strongid
    • Heartgard Plus
    • Drontal
  31. What color is pyrantel?
  32. How safe is pyrantel?
    very safe
  33. Pyrantel treats what parasites in dogs and cats?
    • roundworms
    • hookworms
  34. Do pet owners usually obtain piperazine from a veterinary hospital or from a non-veterinary source?
    non-veterinary source - grocery store, pet store, department store
  35. Piperazine treats what parasites in dogs and cats?
  36. List 2 types of imidazothiazoles.
    • febantel
    • levamisole
  37. What common product includes febantel?
    Drontal Plus - praziquantel + pyrantel + febantel
  38. Name the 2 main types of anticestodal drugs.
    praziquantel (Droncit, Drontal, Drontal Plus), epsiprantel (Cestex)
  39. List 5 types of antiprotozoal drugs, and the specific protozoa that they affect.
    • sulfadimethoxine (Albon) - coccidia
    • amprolium (Corid) - coccidia
    • metronidazole (Flagyl) - giardia
    • fenbendazole (Panacur) - giardia
    • ponazuril (Marquis) - sarcocystis neurona
Card Set
Antiparasitic 1