1. What is a linear or translatory motion produced by a series of rotary mvmts of the jts of the body?
  2. What is the rhythmical, alternating mvmts of the limbs and trunk?
    normal human locomotion
  3. What is a gait cycle?
    point of initial heel contact of one LE to the point at which the heel of the same extremity contacts the ground again
  4. What is the stance phase of a gait cycle?
    (heel strike)initial ground contact of one LE and comtinues until that LE is no longer in contact with the ground (toe off)
  5. What is the swing phase of a gait cycle?
    instant from toe off until heel strikes the ground (or ground contact)
  6. What is double limb support?
    when one limb is beginning stance and the other is ending stance

    occurs twice in a gait cycle
  7. What is the distribution of the stance phase of a gait cycle?
  8. What is the distribution of the swing phase of a gait cycle?
  9. What is the distribution of the double support of a gait cycle?
  10. What does RLA stand for?
    rancho los amigos
  11. In traditional gait, what is the order of the stance phase?
    • heel strike
    • foot flat
    • midstance
    • heel off
    • toe off
  12. In traditional gait, what is the order of the swing phase?
    • acceleration
    • mid swing
    • deceleration
  13. In RLA, what is the order of the stance phase?
    • initial contact
    • loading response
    • midstance (single limb support)
    • terminal stance
    • pre-swing
  14. In RLA, what is the order of the swing phase?
    • initial swing
    • mid swing
    • terminal swing
  15. In RLA, what is the time period of inital contact until the opposite extremity is off the ground?
    loading response

    ends at foot flat, loading weight to other limb
  16. In RLA, what is the time frame from the end of midstance to initial contact of the opposite leg or heel (shifting weight)?
    terminal stance
  17. In RLA, what is the time frame from initial contact of the opposite leg or heel to just before the toes leave the ground?
  18. What is the initial swing time fram of RLA?
    begins when toes leave the ground until maximum knee flexion occurs
  19. What is the mid swing time frame of RLA?
    from maximum knee flexion until tibia is vertical
  20. What is the terminal swing time frame of RLA?
    from vertical tibia to just prior to initial contact
  21. What is stance time?
    stance phase time of one leg during a gait cycle
  22. What is single support time?
    time when one leg is supporting body weight during gait cycle
  23. What is double support time?
    amount of time that both feet are one the ground during gait cycle

    as speed increases, double support decreases
  24. What is the length from heel strike to heel strike of the same foot?
    stride length

    distance traveled during one gait cycle
  25. What is the time required to perform one stride length?
    stride duration
  26. What is the distance from heel strike of one foot to heel strike of the opposite foot?
    step length
  27. What is the time spent during a single step?
    step length

    on a weak or painful leg, the step duration may decrease
  28. What is cadence?
    • number of steps per unit of time
    • cadence= #steps/time
    • shorter steps will increase cadence at any velocity

    • slow walking= 70/min
    • fast walking= 130/min
    • running starts at 180
  29. What is the rate of change of velocity with respect to time?
  30. What is the width of BOS?
    from mid heel to mid heel

    2-4 inches
  31. What is the normal degree of toe out?
  32. What provides counterbalance with gait?
    arm swing
  33. What is a painful gait called, and what are the causes?
    antalgic gait

    weakness, inflammation, injury, jt deformities
  34. What is vertical displacement of COG?
    • lowest pt of COG during one gait cycle is during double support
    • highest pt occurs at midstance

    normal displacement is 2 inches
  35. What is lateral displacement of COG?
    • horizontal displacement of COG as body weight shifts side to side
    • greatest during the single support phase of gait at midstance
  36. What is horizontal dip of the pelvis?
    • lateral pelvic tilt
    • pelvic drops slightly on the NWB side during swing phase
  37. What muscles work to keep the pelvis level during gait?
    • hip abductors contract on opposite side
    • erector spinae group contracts on same side (swing leg)
  38. What is the normal amt of knee flexion during stance phase?
    15-20 degrees
  39. What widens BOS, and results in little lateral motion of the body to be necessary to shift COG from one leg to another over BOS?
    valgus at the knee
  40. What are some reasons why we analyze gait?
    • determine nature and severity of condition
    • provide basis for implemantation of ther ex program
    • provide a basis for use of orthotics to improve walking pattern
  41. How does age affect gait?
    • decrease speed
    • shorter stride
    • shorter step length
    • longer duration of double support
    • smaller swing to support phase ratio
  42. What effects does parkinsons disease (festinating gait) have on gait?
    rigid and nonreciprocal

    • increased cadence
    • shorter stride
    • lack of heel strike and toe off
    • decreased arm swing
  43. What disorder causes a large BOS, balance and control problems,and large side-to-side deviations of COG?
    ataxic gait (cerebellum disorder)
  44. What muscle weakness causes the pelvis to drop on the unsupported side when single leg support is on weak side?
    gluteus medius gait (trendelenburg gait)
  45. What type of muscle weakness causes you to lean backward at heel strike?
    gluteus maximus gait (rocking horse gait)
  46. What does quadricep weakness casue you to do?
    lean forward
  47. What does plantarflexion weakness cause?
    increased dorsiflexion and knee flexion

    no heel rise during push off resulting in a shortened step length on the unaffected side
  48. What does dorsiflexion weakness cause?
    increased hip and knee flexion or toe drag

    decreased heel strike period, may result in foot slap or steppage gait
  49. What are some common causes of gait deviations?
    • pain/discomfort
    • m. weakness
    • limitations of jt motion
    • decreased coordination
    • deformities of bone or soft tissue (amputees, contractures)
    • instability (leg length discrepancy)
    • psychological (not wanting to work, loss of motivation)
  50. What is the analysis of lateral trunk bending/trendelenburg?
    gluteus medius gait, abductor lurch

    • stance phase
    • pt leans trunk over stance leg
    • observe post./ant.
    • -possible leg length discrepancy, weak gluteus medius and minimus
  51. What is the analysis of hip hiking?
    quadratus lumborum does it

    • swing phase
    • hip is hiked during swing
    • observe post./ant.
    • -possible long extremity, ankle/knee are fused (knee immobilizer, OA), hamstring weakness
  52. What is the analysis of internal/external rotation?
    all phases

    • excessive intenal/external rotation of leg
    • observe post./ant.
    • -possible CVA=externally rotated, CP= internally rotated
  53. What is the analysis of cirumduction?
    swing phase

    • pt brings leg out and around
    • observe post.
    • -possible weak hip or knee flexors, knee or ankle fused (knee immobilizer, OA), leg length discrepancy
  54. What is the analysis of excessive medial (lateral) foot contact?
    stance phase

    • excessive weight medial/lateral
    • observe post./ant.
    • -possible inversion weakness, eversion contracture, genu valgum (medial), eversion weakness, inversion contracture, genu varum (lateral)
  55. What is the analysis of abnormal BOS?
    swing and stance

    • more/less than 2-4"
    • observe post.
    • -possible balance, tight abductors, genu valgum, obesity (wide), spasticity (holds together), tight adductors, genu varum (narrow)
  56. What is the analysis of anterior trunk bending?

    • forward lean of the trunk
    • observe from side
    • -possible quad weakness
  57. What is the analysis of posterior trunk bending?
    • gluteus maximus gait/ extensor lurch
    • stance

    • pt hyperextends the trunk
    • observe from side
    • -possible weak gluts, and maybe hamstrings
  58. What is the analysis of hyperextended knee?
    • back knee gait genu recurvatum
    • stance

    • hyperextended knee
    • observe from side
    • -possible quad weakness, plantar flexor contracture
  59. What is the analysis of inadequate dorsiflexion control?
    • swing and stance foot slap
    • foot flat

    • toe drag
    • observe from side
    • -possible weak ant. tibia and dorsiflexors
  60. What is the analysis of insufficient push-off?
    • stance, terminal, pre-swing
    • drop off at end of stance

    • no push off
    • observe from side
    • -possible fused ankle (cant plantarflex), sprained ankle, weak gastroc-soleus
  61. What is the analysis of vaulting?
    involved side swing

    • rise up on contralateral leg for clearance
    • observe from side
    • -possible swing limb too long, hip flexor weakness, knee fusion (wont bend)
  62. What is the analysis of excessive knee flexion?
    • steppage gait - weak DF
    • swing

    • excessive hip and knee flexion
    • observe from side
    • -possible leg length discrepancy, anterior tibia weakness
  63. What is the analysis of abnormal arm motion?
    swing and stance

    • abnormal arm swing
    • observe side, front, back
    • -possible shoulder hurts, imbalance, may be excessive or none
  64. What is the analysis of abnormal pronation (supination) of the transverse tarsal jt?

    • cant accommodate to uneven surfaces (sand, stone)
    • observe post.
    • -possible osteoarthritis, arthritis
  65. What is the normal amt of toe extension during terminal stance?
    35 degrees
  66. What is the normal amt of toe extension during pre-swing?
    65 degrees
Card Set
gait patterns