Psy 101

  1. The Prenatal Period
    --The Germinal Stage
    • is the first phase
    • 1st two weeks
  2. The Prenatal Period
    --The embryonic Stage
    • 2nd stage lasting from 1st 2 weeks to the end of the 2nd month
    • -the heart, spine, and brain emerge as organs
  3. The Prenatal Period
    --The Fetal Stage
    • third stage of prenatal development lasting from two months thru birth
    • the fetus becomes capable of physical movement during this stage
  4. Age of Viability
    • The age at which a baby can survive in the event of a premature birth
    • Sometime between 22 weeks and 26 weeks
  5. Separation Anxiety
    • emotional distress seen in many infants when they are separated from ppl with whom they have formed an attachment.
    • it usually peaks around 14 - 18 months, then declines
  6. Erik Erickson's Stage Theory
    • 1) Trust vs. Mistrust
    • 2) Autonomy vs. shame and doubt
    • 3) Initiative vs. guilt
    • 4) Industry vs. inferiority
  7. Levels of moral reasoning
    Punishment or rewards
  8. Levels of moral reasoning
    Society's Rules
  9. Levels of moral reasoning
    personal ethics
  10. The two major aspects of people that are defined by personality are _____ and _____.
    • Consisitency
    • distinctiveness
  11. Personality Trait
    • is a durable disposition to behave in a particular way in a variety of situations
    • Honest, dependable, suspicious
    • 4,500 different ones
  12. The ID
    • the primitive, instinctive component of personality that operates according to the pleasure principles.
    • i want it now!!
    • eat, sleep, sex, poop, peep/ biologicla urges
    • gets out of control breaks rules
  13. The Ego
    • the decision making component of personality that operates according to the reality principle.
    • 2 yrs. secondary process thinking
    • Moderate you dont always get waht you want/ mediator
    • no we will get caught
  14. The Superego
    • the moral component of personality that incorporates social standarts about what represents right and wrong.
    • 3-5 yrs.
    • guilt + Shame when break rules
    • pride + self satisfation when follpwed
    • guilt---
  15. Defense Mechanismes
    largely uncoscious reacitons that protect a person from unpleasant emotions such as anxiety and guilt
  16. Rationalization
    creating flase but plausible excuses to justify unacceptable behaviour.
  17. Repression
    keeping distressing thoughts and feelings buried in the uncouscious. motivated forgetting
  18. Projection
    attributing ones own thoughts, feelings, or motives to another
  19. Freud's psychosexual stages
    --Oral Stage
    • the 1st year of life
    • main source of erotic stimulation is the mouth
  20. Freud's psychosexual stages
    --Anal Stage
    • 2-3 yrs of age
    • children get their erotic pleasure from their bowel movements
  21. Freud's psychosexual stages
    --Phallic Stage
    • 4-5 yrs.
    • the genitals become the focus of the childs erotic energy thru self-stimulation --the Oedipus complex emerges
    • boys go for mom/girls for dad
  22. Freud's psychosexual stages
    --Latency Stage
    the child expands social contacts/ S- puberty
  23. Freud's psychosexual stages
    --Genital Stage
    sexual urges reappear channelled to opposite sex
  24. Collective unconscious
    a storehouse of latent memory traces inherited from peoples ancestrla past.
  25. Compensation
    • involves efforts to overcome imagined or real inferioties by developing ones abilites
    • both argued freud over analyzed suxual stages
  26. Maslows Hierarchy of needs
    • systematic arragement of needs according to prority, in which basic needs must be met before less basic needs are aroused
    • be all one can be
  27. Sel=actualizing persons
    are people with exceptionally healthy personalities marked by continued personal growth
  28. Biopsychosocial Model
    which holds that physical illness is caused by complex interaction of biological, psychological and sociacultural fators
  29. Stress
    any circumstances that threaten or are perceived to threaten ones wellbeing and thereby tax ones coping abilities
  30. frustraion
    frustraion- is experienced whenever you wnat something and you cant have it
  31. Conflict
    occurs when two or more incompatible motications or behavioral impulsed compete for expression
  32. 3 types of conflich
    • Approach-Approach
    • -attractive goals/massage or nice shoes

    • Avoidance-avoidance
    • -unatractive goals/sleep on rack or hard place

    • Approach-Avoidance
    • -Single goal/good job not good city
  33. General Adaptation Syndrome
    • a model of the bodys stress response consisting og three stages
    • alarm
    • resistance
    • exhaustion
  34. Excessive consummtory behaviour
    overeating overdrinking oversmoking, etc. as reaction to stress
  35. Fantasy
    gratifying frustrated desires by imaginary achiements
  36. Overcompesation
    covering up felt weaknesses by emphasizing some desirable characteristics
  37. Type A personality
    • ingludes 3 elemes
    • 1)strong competitive, orientation
    • 2) impaitence and time urgency
    • 3) Anger and hostility
  38. Type B personality
    is marked by relatively relaxed, patient, easy-goin, amicable behavior
  39. Link between Type A and Coronary Risk:
    • 1)they have greater physiological reactivity to stress
    • 2) Type As tendency to work hard makes them drink more alchohol, exercise less, and get less sleep
    • 3) Type As create stress for themselves by their own hostility which drives ppl away leaving them with less social support
  40. Medical Model
    which proposes that it is useful to thing of adnormal behaviou as a disease
  41. Deviance
    behavior that does not coincide with cultural norms
  42. Maladaptive behavior
    • ppl are judged to have a psychological disorder bcuz their everyday adptive behavior isimpaired
    • alcohol abuse/drug abuse
  43. Personal Distress
    behavior that cuases anxiety or concern for the affected individual
  44. DSM and its 5 axes
    • Axis 1- most psychological disorders
    • -sexual, organix disorders, mood disorders
    • Axis 2- personality disorders and mental reatrdation
    • Axis 3-medical conditions
    • -General
    • Axis 4- psychosocial problems
    • -school problems, marriage probs
    • Axis 5- GAF scale Global A
    • -100 to 0 scale analysis
  45. Generalized Anxiety Disorder
    a chronic, high level of anxiety that is not tied to any specific threat
  46. Phobia Disorder
    a persistend and irrational fear of an object or situation that presents no realistic danger
  47. Panic Disorder
    recurrent attacks of overwhelmin anxiety that usually occur suddenly or unexpencdtly
  48. Agoraphobia
    frer of goin out in public
  49. Obsessive compulsive Disorder
    persistendm uncontrollble instrusion of unwnated thoughts(obsessions) and urges to engaged in seseless rituals( compulsions).
  50. Bipolar disorder
    • formely known as manin drepressive disorder
    • is makred by the experience of both depressed and manic periods
  51. Hallucinations
    are sensory perceptions that occur in the absence of real external stimulus or gross distortions of perceptual input

    • 4 types
    • -paranoid
    • -catatonic
    • -disorganized
    • -undifferentiated
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Psy 101