Bio ch.26

  1. Phylogeny
    The evolutionary history of a group of species or group of species
  2. Systematics
    A discipline focused on classifying organisms adetermining their evolutionary relationships
  3. Taxonomy
    How organisms are named and classified
  4. Binomial
    The two part format of a biological name
  5. Genus
    The first part of a binomial
  6. What's the order of linnaean system?
    Species, genus, family,order,class,phylum,kingdom,domain
  7. Taxon
    The named taxonomical unit at any level of the hierarchy
  8. Phylogenentic tree
    A branchingdiagram that represents a hypothesis aboutthee evolutionary history of a groupoff organisms
  9. Phylocode
    Proposed system of classification oforganisms based on evolutionary relationships. Only groups that include a common ancestor and all of its descendants are named
  10. Branch points
    The divergence of two or more taxa from a common ancestor
  11. Sister taxa
    Groups of organisms that share an immediate common ancestor
  12. Rooted
    A branch point within the tree represents the most common ancestors of all taxa in the tree
  13. Basal taxon
    A lineage that diverges early in the history of a group
  14. Polytomy
    A branch point from which more than two descendant groups emerge
  15. Analogy
    Similiaritybetween two species that is due to convergent evolution rather than to descent from a common ancestor with the same trait
  16. Homoplasy
    An similiar analogous structure or molecular sequence that has evolved independently in two species
  17. Molecular systematics
    The discsupine that uses data from DNA and other molecules to determine evolutionary relationships
  18. Cladistic
    An approach to systematics in which organisms are placed into groups called clades based primarily on common descent
  19. Clades
    A group of species that includes an ancestral species and all of its descendants
  20. monophyletic
    Pertaining to a group of taxa that consists of a common ancestor and all of its descendants. A monophyletic taxon is equivalent to a clade
  21. Paraphyletic
    Consists of an ancestral species and some, but not all of its descendants
  22. Polyphyletic
    includes taxa with different ancestors
  23. Shared ancestral character
    A character that originated in an ancestor of the taxon
  24. Shared derived character
    an evolutionary novelty unique to a clade
  25. outgroup
    a species or group of species from an evoutionary lineage that is known to have diverged before the lineage that includes the species we are studying
  26. Ingroup
    a species or groups of species whse evolutionary relationships we seek to determine
  27. maximum parsimony
    A principle that states that when considering multiple explanations for an observation, one should first investigate the simplest explanation that is consistent with facts
  28. Maximum Likelihood
    The given certain probablity that rules about how DNA sequences change over time, a tree can be found that reflects the most likely sequence of evolutionary events
  29. Orthologous genes
    Homologous genes that are found in different species because of speciation
  30. Paralogous genes
    Homologous genes that are found in the same genome as a result of gene duplication
  31. Molecular clock
    A method for estimating the time required for a given amount of evolutionary change, based on the observation that some regions of genomes evolve at constant rates
  32. Neutral theory
    The hypothesis that much evolutionary change in genes and proteins has no effect on fitness and therefore is not influenced by natural selction
  33. horizontal gene transfer
    The transfer of genes from one genome to another through mechanisms such as transposable elements, plasmid exchange, viral activity, and perhaps fusions of different organsims.
Card Set
Bio ch.26