Left Heart valve name
- Left atrioventricular valve
Right heart valve name
- Right atrioventricular valve
Name chamber of heart with thin walls and large chamber
Name chamber with thick walls and small void
Definition of diastole
Define heart sounds lub dub
- Lub: ventricles close and contract (systole). blood slamming into atrioventricular valves at the same time
- Dub: ventricles relax (diastole), causing blood to slam against semilunar valves
What is a heart murmur
Blood going back to atrium from ventricle. Makes a swoosh sound.
What is the ideal blood pressure of a healthy 20 year old.
What blood pressure reading is considered hypertention
- Syastolic. 140
- Diastolic. 90
What is autorhythmicity
An ability of the heart. Having a built in (intrinsic) rhythym of contraction and relaxation.
Describe the pathway of autorhythmicity
Impulse/signal starts at SINOATRIAL NODE (SA) located in the ceiling of the right atrium, and spreads across atria.
Impulse reaches ATRIOVENTRICULAR NODE (AV) in floor of right atrium next to left atrium septal wall. Cardiac cells that act like nerve cells, BUNDLE IF HIS extendsdown through septum and split into 3 BUNDLE BRANCHES at apex of heart. Cardiac musvle cells extend the whole way down; re very long!!
BUNDLE BRANCHES split into PURKINJE FIBERS. Fibers bump into individual cardiac muscle cells by poking into walls of ventricles.
Describe the layers of the hearts paracardial sac
1. FIBROUS PERICARDIUM (dense irreg. CT)
2. SEROUS PARACARDIUM
A. PARIETAL PARACARDIUM (serous membrane layer) areolar & simple squamous epithelial
B. PARACARDIAL CAVITY (potential space between the 2 layers of serous membrane)
C. VISCERAL PERICARDIUM (superficial tissue layer of the heart, serous membrane) simple squamous epithelium and areolar
Name the three layers of the heart wall
1. ENDOCARDIUM: specialized epethilium, simple squamous. Inner most lining of the chambers, like paint on the walls
2. MYOCARDIUM: cardiac muscle middle layer
3. EPICARDIUM: visceral pericardium (serous membrane) simple squamous epithelium and areolar
Name the layers of tissue starting from the pericardial sac, through to the inner heart layer.
- Paracardial Sac:
- 1.Fibrous Paracardium (dense irreg. connective tissue)
- 2.Parietal Paracardium (areolar and simple squamous epethilium)
- Serous Tissue
- 2. Parietal Paracardium (areolar and simple squamous epethilium)
- 3. Paracardial Cavity (with serous fluid)
- 4. Epicardium/Visceral Paracardium (simple squamous epethilium and areolar)
- Heart Layers
- 4. Epicardium (simple squamous epethilium and areolar)
- 5. Myocardium (cardiac muscle cells)
- 6. Endocardium (specialized simple squamous epithelium)
what is the structure of blood vessel walls
- TUNICA EXTERNA
- -endothelium: simple squamous epethilium
- -basement membrane
- -internal elastic lamina:
- >areolar CT
- >elastic fibers only in arteries
- TUNICA MEDIA
- -smooth muscle
- -external elastic lamina: for compliance in arteries
- TUNICA INTERNA
- -connective tissue proper. not dense enough to be dense irreg. CT but denser than areolar CT
what are the differences in ARTERIES vs. VEINS
ARTERIES VS. VEINS
VEINS: larger lumen
- TUNICA INTERNA
- >valves in vein, not in arteries
- >no internal elastic lamina in vein
- TUNICA MEDIA
- >smooth muscle layer smaller in veins
- >no external elastic lamina in veins
- TUNICA EXTERNA
- >no real difference
Define Arterial Compliance
- -ability of an artery to comply with the changes in blood pressure (expand/contract)
- -very good in young people, poor in elderly (less stretch)
What is the Vasa Vasorum
the vasa vasorum is a special layer int both arteries and veins to supply blood to themselves becuase they are so thickly walled and have smooth muscle cells
What are the tissue layers in Capillaries
- >wall made of just endothelium
- >basement membrane
Give the characteristics of Arteries as they become Capillaries
- -Arteries become smaller as they branch and move away from the heart (bifurcation)
- -become Arterioles and lose Tunica Externa
- -metarterioles, smaller than arterioles and give blood to the capilaries
- -are surrounded by less Smooth Muscle as they become Capillaries
what is a Throughfare Channel
it includes the metarteriole and post capillary venule, its a direct line from arteriole to a veneule bypassing capillaries, and has no smooth muscle
what is the purpose of a Precapillary Sphincter
its a ring of smooth muscle at the begining of the capillaries. It involuntarily contracts and pinches off blood flow to the capillaries, therefore the blood does not enter the capillary bed and goes where it is needed most.
what are the 3 types of Capillaries?
- -most common
- -only tunica interna
- -"interculated clefts", cracks between cells, allow plasma to leak out, source of tissue fluid
- - each endothelial cell has pores/windows called fenestrations.
- -mostly for filtering (kidney, digestive tract lining)
- -sinus like
- -huge gaping jagged holes, both between cells and basement membrane
- -found in liver and red bone marrow, allows RBC's to enter blood stream through capillaries
Define a Portal System
a system of veins that have capillary beds at both ends of the system, the second ending in an organ other than the heart.
- Hepatic Portal System (liver)
- Hypophyseal Portal System (pituitary)
What are the four vessels involved in the Portal System
- -Gastrospenic Vein (spleen and stomach)
- -Superior Mesenteric (small intestine)
- -Inferior Mesenteric (large intestine)
- -Hepatic Portal Vein
How does the liver recieve O2 rich blood and nutrient rich blood?
on liver recieve blood from two sources
- Celiac trunk artery
- hepatic portal system
What is the composition of blood?
- 50% Plasma
- >albumin: renders plasma isotonic, grabs lipids
- -Waste: ammonia, urea, creatinine, C02
- FORMED ELEMENTS___________________________
- 1% Leukocytes & Platelets ("Buffy Coat")
- round fibers. Plug tears in blood vessels. Made from 2nd level stem cell, breaks into little cells, surround themselves with membrane. Are blood FRACTIONS, not cells.
- Granulocyte: granules, vessicles visible
- -Neutrophil (Granulocyte) phagocyte, eats cells, first at crime scene.
- -Eosinophil (Granulocyte)
- antihistamine agents, abundant where parasites thrive. Stains with Eosin pH stain
- -Basophil (Granulocyte)
- produces histamine. Stains with basic pH stain.
50% Erythrocytes (red blood cells)
- Agranulocyte: no vessicles vissible
- -Lymphocyte (Agranulocyte)
- produces antibodies. abundact in lymphatic system, spleen and nodes.
- -Monocyte (Agranulocyte)
- Kidney bean shaped nucleus. becomes macrophages. HUGE!