1. A researcher is interested in studying the effects of viewing television violence on aggression in children. She shows one group of participants an extremely violent movie, another group a moderately violent movie, and a third group a nonviolent movie. In this case, the level of movie violence shown to the children would be considered the _________ variable, and the children's subsequent level of aggresive behavior would be the ______ variable.
    • independent
    • dependent
  2. A dependent variable is considered to be the (cause/effect) _______ in an experiment, whereas the independent variable is considered to be the _________.
    • effect
    • cause
  3. A ________ relationship is the relationship between a change in an independent variable and an associated change in a dependent variable. Behaviorists are typically concerned with discovering the relationship between changes in e_____ events and changes in b______.
    • functional
    • environmental
    • behavior
  4. A(n) _______ is any event that can potentially influence behavior; a(n) ________ is a specific instance of behavior.
    • stimulus
    • response
  5. A tone is a s______, and a tone and a bell are s_______.
    • stimulus
    • stimuli
  6. One person's response can be another person's _______.
  7. Julie dislikes Jake, one of the sales personnel who works in her department. Because Julie avoids Jake like the plague, Jake can be considered an ________ stimulus. For example, Julie closes her office door when Jake is nearby, which is an example of a(n) (overt/covert) ______ behavior.
  8. Julie also thinks unkind thoughts about Jake and feels anxious when she sees him in the hallway, both of which are examples of _____ behavior.
  9. Jake is strongly attracted to Julie and often hangs around her office just to get a glimpse of her. Julie is thus an ______ stimulus for Jake.
  10. If we think before we act, then our (covert/overt) ________ behavior serves as a stimulus that influences our (covert/overt) _______ behavior. If we act first and then feel regret later, then our _______ behavior serves as a stimulus that influences our _______ behavior.
    • covert
    • overt
    • overt
    • covert
  11. An e_______ o______ is a procedure that affects the appetitiveness or aversiveness of a stimulus.
    establishing operation
  12. Farah has been working out of town and has not seen a movie for over a year. It is likely that the reward value of going to a movie has (increased/decreased) _________ as a function of (satiation/deprivation) ________.
    • increased
    • deprivation
  13. The term ______ means "closeness or nearness."
  14. Erin says that she once experienced a strong pain in her leg at the precise moment that her son, who was away on a mountain-climbing expedition, broke his leg. Because of the t______ c_______ between her feeling of pain and her son's injury, Erin now claims that she must have some type of psychic ability.
    temporal contiguity
  15. People who live close to each other are more likely to date and fall in love. Thus, s________ c______ seems to have a strong effect on the development of romantic relationships.
    spacial contiguity
  16. Sasha obtains a high mark on her exams only when she studies diligently. For Sasha, there is a c______ between studying diligently and doing well on her exams.
  17. If a dog receives a dog biscuit only when it begs, then receiving the dog biscuit is c______ upon the behavior of begging.
  18. 2 common descriptive methods are n_______ _________ and c_______ _______.
    • naturalistic observation
    • case studies
  19. Both apporaches are susceptible to the problem of researcher b______ in which the opinions & beliefs of the researcher can unduly influence his/her observations.
  20. The major problem with both approaches is that it is often (easy/difficult) _______ to specify which variables influence which behavior.
  21. Because the case study approach often involves only one person, the results may be limited in the extent to which they can be g______ to other people, places, and times.
  22. In an experiment, a(n) _______ variable is systematically varied (manipulated) to determine its effects on the _________ variable.
    • independent
    • dependent
  23. In the simplest form of a control group design, individuals are r______ assigned to either an e_____ (or tr_______) group and a _________ group.
    • randomly
    • experimental
    • treatment
    • control
  24. Control group designs in which behaviors or response to treatments are compared between species are referred to as ______ designs.
  25. Briefly stated, 3 problems with control group designs are:
    • 1. Usually requires a large # of subjects
    • 2. typically focus on the average performance of all subjects
    • 3. results often analyzed only @ end of experiment
  26. In a simple-comparison design, behavior in a b______ condition is compared to behavior in a t_____ condition.
    • baseline
    • treatment
  27. A simple-comparison design (does/does not) ______ allow us to determine if there is a f______ relationship between the independent and dependent variables.
    • does not
    • functional
  28. A reversal design (also called an _______ design) involves repeated alternations between a _______ period & a ______ period.
    • ABA
    • baseline
    • treatment
  29. What type of result do we need to see during the second baseline phase to determine whether our treatment is the cause of the change in the behavior?
    The behavior must revert to its original baseline frequency when the treatment is withdrawn.
  30. A reversal design is inappropriate for an experiment in which the treatment produces a (temporary/permanent) ________ change in the behavior.
  31. A reversal design is also inappropriate when the act of withdrawing the treatment during the second A phase would lead to e______ problems.
  32. With a multiple-baseline design, the treatment is instituted at different points in t_______ for ______ or more p_______, s________, or b________.
    • time
    • 2
    • persons
    • settings
    • behaviors
  33. A key advantage of the multiple-baseline design is that we do not have to w______ the treatment to determine if it is effective.
  34. _________-_________ is a preferable design for situations in which the treatment might result in a (temporary/permanent) ________ change in behavior, or where it might be un______ to withdraw the treatment.
  35. 2 advantages to using animals for behavioral research is that one can more strictly control an animal's g_______ makeup and l_____ history.
    • genetic
    • learning
  36. A third advantage to using animals is that the e________ environment can more easily be controlled for animals than for humans.
  37. A fourth advantage to using animals for research is that it woud be u______ to conduct certain types of studies with humans, such as examining the effects of brain lesions on learning ability.
  38. 2 arguments against the use of animals in research are:
    • 1. Animals are not humans...the findings from animal research necessarily have limited applicability to humans.
    • 2. It is morally wrong & animals have rights similar to humans.
  39. appetitive stimulus
    An event that an organism will seek out.
  40. aversive stimulus
    An event that an organism will avoid
  41. Baseline
    The normal frequency of a behavior before some intervention.
  42. Case study approach
    A descriptive research approach that involves intensive examination of one or a few individuals.
  43. Comparitive Design
    A type of control group design in which different species constitute one of the independent variables.
  44. contingency
    A predictive relationship between 2 events such that the occurrence of 1 event predicts the probable occurrence of the other.
  45. Control Group Design
    A type of experiment in which, at its simplest, subjects are randomly assigned to either an experimental (or treatment) group or a control group; subjects assigned to the experimental group are exposed to a certain manipulation or treatment, while those assigned to the control group are not.
  46. Covert behavior
    Behavior that can be subjectively perceived only by the person performing the behavior. Thoughts and feelings are covert behaviors.
  47. Dependent variable
    That aspect of an experiment that is allowed to freely vary to determine if it is affected by changes in the independent variable.
  48. Deprivation
    The prolonged absence of an event that tends to increase the appetitiveness of that event.
  49. Descriptive research
    Research that focuses on describing the behavior and the situation within thich it occurs.
  50. Duration
    The length of time that an individual repeatedly or continuously performs a certain behavior.
  51. Establishing operation
    A procedure that affects the appetitiveness or aversiveness of a stimulus.
  52. Functional relationship
    The relationship between changes in an independent variable and changes in a dependent variable; a cause-and-effect relationship.
  53. Independent variable
    That aspect of an experiment that is made to systematically vary across the different conditions in an experiment.
  54. Interval recording
    The measurement of whether or not a behavior occurs within a series of continuous intervals. (The # of times it occurs w/in each interval is irrelevant)
  55. Latency
    The length of time required for a behavior to begin
  56. Multiple-baseline design
    A type of single-subject design in which a treatment is instituted at successive points in time for 2 or more persons, settings, or behaviors.
  57. Naturalistic observation
    A descriptive research approach that involves the systematic observation and recording of behavior in its natural environment.
  58. Overt behavior
    Behavior that has the potential for being directly observed by an individual other than the one performing the behavior.
  59. Response
    A particular instance of a behavior
  60. Reversal Design
    A type of single-subject design that involves repeated alternations between a baseline period and a treatment period.
  61. Satiation
    The prolonged exposure to (or consumption of) an event that tends to decrease the appetitiveness of that event.
  62. Simple-comparison design
    A type of single-subject design in which behavior in a baseline condition is compared to behavior in a treatment condition.
  63. spatial contiguity
    The extent to which events are situated close to each other in space.
  64. Stimulus
    Any event that can potentially influence behavior.
  65. Temporal contiguity
    The extent to which events occur close together in time
  66. Contiguity
Card Set