1. Utilitarianism -
    idea that the success of something could be measured by whether it secured the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people.
  2. Political economy
    written by Harriet Martineau, These consisted of twenty-four stories that illustrated for a popular audience the ideas of Thomas Malthus, James Mill, David Ricardo, and Adam Smith. The Illustrations include her earliest attacks on slavery, along with anti-slavery articles published in the Monthly Repository, a Unitarian critical journal. She built her arguments on two grounds, the immorality of slavery, and its economic inefficiency. The fourth story in Illustrations, ‘Demerara,’ exposes the intense human suffering that results from irrational slave systems that waste both capital and labor
  3. Iron law of wages
    a proposed law of economics that asserts that real wages always tend, in the long run, toward the minimum wage necessary to sustain the life of the worker. According to Lassalle, wages cannot fall below subsistence level because without subsistence, laborers will be unable to work. However, competition among laborers for employment will drive wages down to this minimal level.
  4. Poor Law (1834)
    system of poor relief which existed in England and whales
  5. Workhouses
    Life in a workhouse was intended to be harsh, to deter the able-bodied poor and to ensure that only the truly destitute would apply. State organized structures intended to help the poor who were unable to find employment
  6. Role of unions and Preston strike
    Cotton workers wanted a 10-20% wage cut restored. Many factory owners did not restore the cuts and workers went on strike. The mill owners united against the workers forming the Preston Masters Association. They announced a general lock-out and a month later all cotton workers were locked out of the mills and unable go to work.The mill owners then began bringing in workers from Manchester, Yorkshire and the South. These workers were nicknamed 'knobsticks'. The strikers responded by encouraging the 'knobsticks' to return home. A party of poor emigrants dispatched from Ireland en route for the mills was captured at Fleetwood, given a good meal at the Farmer's Arms and escorted home by union officials.
  7. Dickens’ role as editor of Household Words and connections to themes in the bookReform and issues like factory safety
    Martineau disagrees with household words (Editor Henry Morley) that factory owners aren’t following regulations of the Factory Act of 1844 when they encase machinery up to seven feet tall in fencing. She believes that once a worker (or child) climbs seven feet, even if part of the job, they are then responsible for their safety. Henry says that losing even one life is a monstrosity when adequate fencing would be enough to save that life.
  8. Martineau
    Didn't think the labor market was like slavery because workers had the right to leave the market if they were unhappy. Did not believe in "Wage slavery". Said the free market was good
  9. Other Activists:
    Said it was "wage slavery". Either workers would work extra hard or starve.
  10. Dickens:
    In his chapter "Men & brothers", he talks about how the workforce was like Slavery.
  11. Marx:
    Wanted to abolish wage slavery. The Industrial Workers of the World contends that all workers should be united as a class and that the wage system should be abolished in place of a different type of economic system
  12. Luddites
    The Luddites were a social movement of British textile artisans in the early nineteenth century who protested—often by destroying mechanized looms—against the changes produced by the Industrial Revolution, which they felt were leaving them without work and changing their entire way of life. . For a short time the movement was so strong that it clashed in battles with the British Army. Measures taken by the government included a mass trial at York in 1812 that resulted in many executions and penal transportation.The principal objection of the Luddites was against the introduction of new wide-framed automated looms that could be operated by cheap, relatively unskilled labour, resulting in the loss of jobs for many skilled textile workers.
  13. Chartism
    • 1. Votes for all men;
    • 2. Equal electoral districts
    • 3. Abolition of the requirement that Members of Parliament be property owners
    • 4. Payment for M.P.s.
    • 5. Annual general elections
    • 6. The secret ballot.
  14. Chartism
    The Chartists obtained one and a quarter million signatures and presented the Charter to the House of Commons in 1839, where it was rejected by a vote of 235 to 46. Many of the leaders of the movement, having threatened to call a general strike, were arrested. When demonstrators marched on the prison at Newport, Monmouthshire, demanding the release of their leaders, troops opened fire, killing 24 and wounding 40 more. A second petition with 3 million signatures was rejected in 1842; the rejection of the third petition in 1848 brought an end to the movement.
  15. Debate about the Corn Laws:
    - Landowners, having control over parliament, imposed tariffs on foreign wheat. Workers were forced to pay higher prices on bread. The industrial class saw that parliament was passing laws which favored wealthy landowners. Even factory owners didn’t like this because it meant they may need to raise wages as bread prices rose. The landlords claimed factory owners wanted cheap food so they could drive down wages and thus maximize their profits
  16. Debate about the Corn Laws:
    The debate is between land owners and the industrial class. Land owners don’t like foreign imports because they provide a better deal on bread. Workers enjoy the lower prices imports provided.
  17. Debate about the Corn Laws:
    The Corn Laws were import tariffs designed to support domestic British corn prices against competition from less expensive foreign imports between 1815 and 1846. Tariffs were introduced by the Importation Act 1815 and repealed by the Importation Act 1846. These laws are viewed British mercantilism, and their abolition a step towards free trade. The Corn Laws enhanced the profits and political power associated with land ownership.
  18. Debate about the Corn Laws:
    This legislation was hated by the people who had to pay these higher bread prices. The industrial classes saw the Corn Laws as an example of how Parliament passed legislation that favored large landowners. The manufacturers in particular were concerned that the Corn Laws would result in a demand for higher wages.
  19. Role of unions- Martineau:
    Completely opposed to unions. Said it was no way to make money, the real only way was to work harder. Said that if a few children had to die for the greater good of society, then its okay.
  20. Role of unions-Dickens:
    Negative view on unions at first, but started to warm to the idea. (ex. Mr.Slackbridge from Hard Times was the union leader and fired Stephen Blackpool for his opposition to Unions). Dickens warmed up to the idea of unions for the sake of Worker safety (Mainly child safety)
  21. Role of unions-Marx:
    Strongly encouraged unions and encouraged them to fight for their rights. Thought that the unions were a stepping-stone to make workers realize that they needed to get rid of the owners
  22. Role of unions- Early Socialism -
    During the industrial revolution while rapid wealth came to the factory owners, the workers became increasingly impoverished. The conspiracy of equality organized by François Noël Babeuf(the first theorist who may properly be called socialist) and his followers aimed at provoking an armed uprising of the plebeian masses against the bourgeois regime of the Directory and establishing a revolutionary dictatorship as a transitional stage to “pure democracy” and “egalitarian communism.” The conspiracy was disclosed in May 1796. At the end of May 1797 its leaders were executed.
  23. Role of unions- Marxism:
    an economic and social system based upon the political and economic theories of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. A theory in which class struggle is a central element in the analysis of social change in Western societies.
  24. Role of unions Anarchism
    The theory or doctrine that all forms of government are oppressive and undesirable and should be abolished. Pierre-Joseph Proudhon was the first to call himself an anarchist. His best-known assertion is that “Property is Theft!”
  25. Capital:
    Economic term used to describe anything profitable
  26. Labor:
    productive activity, especially for the sake of economic gain.
Card Set
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