1. Accomodation
    1. Process whereby eyes make adjustments for seeing objects at various distances

    • 2. These adjustments include the pupil:
    • .....a. Narrowing - Contraction
    • .....b. Widening - Dilation

    3. Movement of the eyes

    4. Changes in the shape of the lens
  2. Convergence
    1. Simultaneous inward movement of the eyes toward each other.

    2. Occurs in an effort to maintain single binocular vision as an object comes nearer
  3. Emmetropia
    • 1. Normal relationship between the:
    • .....a. Refractive power of the eye
    • .....b. Shape of the eye

    2. Enables light rays to focus correctly on the retina.

    Reminder: Emmetr/o = in proper measure
  4. Refraction (Refractive power)
    Ability of the lens to bend light rays so they focus on the retina.
  5. Visual acuity
    Ability to distinguish object details & shape at a distance.
  6. Blepharoptosis (Ptosis)
    Drooping of the upper eyelid that is usually due to paralysis
  7. Chalazion (Internal stye)
    • 1. Localized swelling inside the eyelid
    • 2. Results from obstruction of a sebaceous gland.

    Contrast with a hordeolum (stye) which is on the eyelid & from an infection of a sebaceous gland.
  8. Ectropion
    • 1. Eversion (outward turning) of the edge of an eyelid
    • 2. Usually affects lower lid
    • 3. When affects lower lid, it:
    • ......a. Exposes the inner surface of the eyelid to irritation
    • ......b. Prevents tears from draining properly
  9. Eversion
    Turning outward
  10. Entropion
    • 1. Inversion (inward turning) of the edge of an eyelid
    • 2. Usually affect lower eyelid
    • 3. Causes eyelashes to rub against the cornea
  11. Hordeolum (stye)
    • 1. Pus-filled lesion on the eyelid
    • 2. Results from an infection in a sebaceous gland.
  12. Periorbital edema
    • 1. Swelling surrounding eye or eyes
    • 2.This can:
    • ......a. Cause eyes to be partially closed by welling
    • ......b. Give face a bloated appearance
    • 3. This swelling is associated with conditions including:
    • ......a. Allergic reactions
    • .....b. Nephrotic syndrome
    • .....c. Cellulitis
  13. Conjunctivitis (pinkeye)
    • 1. Inflammation of the conjunctiva
    • 2. Usually caused by an infection or allergy
  14. Edema
    Means swelling of tissues
  15. Dacryoadenitis
    • 1. Inflammation of the lacrimal gland
    • 2. Can be caused by:
    • .....a. Bacteria
    • .....b. Virus
    • .....c. Fungus
  16. Subconjunctival hemorrhage
    • 1. Bleeding between conjunctive & sclera.
    • 2. Common condition which is usually caused by an injury
    • 3. Creates red area over the white of the eye.
  17. Xerophthalmia (dry eye)
    • 1. Drying of eye surfaces including conjunctive
    • 2. Often associated with aging
    • 3. Can also be due to systemic diseases such as:
    • .....a. Rheumatoid arthritis
    • .....b. Lack of vitamin A
    • 4. Also associated with certain mediations such as those to treat hypertension and heart diasease
  18. Iritis (anterior uveitis)
    • 1. Inflammation of the uveal tract
    • 2. Affect primarily structures in the front of the eye.
    • 3. Condition can be acute or chronic.
  19. Corneal abrasion
    Injury, such as a scratch or irritation, to outer layers of the cornea

    Note: Contrast with corneal ulcer which is pittting of the cornea caused by an injection or injury.
  20. Corneal ulcer
    • 1. Pitting of the cornea caused by an infection or injury.
    • 2. Although these ulcers heal with treatment, they can leave a cloudy scar that impairs vision.

    Note: Contrast with corneal abrasion which is a scratch or irritation to the outer layers of the cornea.
  21. Keratitis
    • 1. Inflammation of the cornea
    • 2. Condition can be due to many causes including:
    • ......a. Bacteria
    • ......b. Virus
    • ......c. Fungus
  22. Pterygium
    Benign growth on cornea that can become large eough to distort vision.
  23. Scleritis
    • 1. Inflammation of the sclera
    • 2. This condition is usually associated with:
    • .....a. Infection
    • .....b. Chemical injuries
    • .....c. Autoimmune diseases
  24. Synechia
    Adhesions that bind the iris to an adjacent structure such as the lens or cornea.
  25. Anisocoria
    • 1. Condition in which the pupils are unequal in size
    • 2. Condition can be congenital or caused by a:
    • .....a. Head Injury
    • .....b. Aneurysm
    • .....c. Pathology of the CNS
  26. Cataract
    • 1. Loss of transparency of lens
    • 2. Causes a progressive loss of visual clarity.
    • 3. Formation of most cataracts is associated with aging
    • 4. Condition can be congenital or due to an injury or disease
  27. PERRLA
    • Pupils are Equal, Round, Reactive to Light & Accomodation
    • 1. Diagnostic observation
    • 2. Any abnormality could be an indication of a head injury or damage to the brain.
  28. Retinal detachment (detached retina)
    Retina is pulled away from its attachment to the choroid in the back of the eye
  29. Floaters (vitreous floaters)
    • 1. Particles of cellular debris
    • 2. Float in the vitreous fluid
    • 3. Cast shadows on the retina
    • 4. Occur normally with aging or in association with:
    • .....a. Vitreous detachments
    • .....b. Retinal tears
    • .....c. Intraocular inflamaation
  30. Nystagmus
    • Involuntary, constant, rhythmic movement of the eyeball
    • 2. Can be congenital or caused b:
    • ......a. A neurological injury
    • ......b. Drug use
  31. Papilledema (choked disk)
    • 1. Swelling & inflammation of the optic nerve at the point of entrance into the eye thru the optic disk.
    • 2. This swelling is caused by increased intracranial pressure
    • 3. Can be due to a tumor pressing on the optic nerve.
  32. Retinal tear
    Occurs when a hole develops in the retina as it is pulled away from its normal position
  33. ..........(1.) Astigmatism - uneven curvatures ..........(2.) Hyperopia - light focuses too far beyond retina ..........(3.) Myopia - light focuses in front of retinaRetinitis pigmentosa
    • 1. Progressive degeneration of the retina
    • 2. Affects night & peripheral vision.
    • 3. Can be detected by dark pigmented spots in the retina.
Card Set
Ch11 Medical Terminology - PART 3 - EYES - Normal & Pathology