1. Process whereby eyes make adjustments
for seeing objects at various distances
- 2. These adjustments include the pupil:
- .....a. Narrowing - Contraction
- .....b. Widening - Dilation
3. Movement of the eyes
4. Changes in
the shape of
1. Simultaneous inward movement of the eyes toward each other.
2. Occurs in an effort to maintain single binocular vision as an object comes nearer
- 1. Normal relationship between the:
- .....a. Refractive power of the eye
- .....b. Shape of the eye
2. Enables light rays to focus correctly
on the retina.
Reminder: Emmetr/o = in proper measure
Refraction (Refractive power)
Ability of the lens to bend light rays so they focus on the retina.
Ability to distinguish object details & shape at a distance.
Drooping of the upper eyelid that is usually due to paralysis
Chalazion (Internal stye)
- 1. Localized swelling inside the eyelid 2. Results from obstruction of a sebaceous gland.
with a hordeolum
) which is on
& from an infection of
a sebaceous gland
- 1. Eversion (outward turning) of the edge of an eyelid
- 2. Usually affects lower lid
- 3. When affects lower lid, it:
- ......a. Exposes the inner surface of the eyelid to irritation
- ......b. Prevents tears from draining properly
- 1. Inversion (inward turning) of the edge of an eyelid
- 2. Usually affect lower eyelid
- 3. Causes eyelashes to rub against the cornea
- 1. Pus-filled lesion on the eyelid
- 2. Results from an infection in a sebaceous gland.
- 1. Swelling surrounding eye or eyes
- 2.This can:
- ......a. Cause eyes to be partially closed by welling
- ......b. Give face a bloated appearance
- 3. This swelling is associated with conditions including:
- ......a. Allergic reactions
- .....b. Nephrotic syndrome
- .....c. Cellulitis
- 1. Inflammation of the conjunctiva
- 2. Usually caused by an infection or allergy
Means swelling of tissues
- 1. Inflammation of the lacrimal gland
- 2. Can be caused by:
- .....a. Bacteria
- .....b. Virus
- .....c. Fungus
- 1. Bleeding between conjunctive & sclera.
- 2. Common condition which is usually caused by an injury
- 3. Creates red area over the white of the eye.
Xerophthalmia (dry eye)
- 1. Drying of eye surfaces including conjunctive
- 2. Often associated with aging
- 3. Can also be due to systemic diseases such as:
- .....a. Rheumatoid arthritis
- .....b. Lack of vitamin A
- 4. Also associated with certain mediations such as those to treat hypertension and heart diasease
Iritis (anterior uveitis)
- 1. Inflammation of the uveal tract
- 2. Affect primarily structures in the front of the eye.
- 3. Condition can be acute or chronic.
Injury, such as a scratch or irritation, to outer layers of the cornea
Note: Contrast with corneal ulcer which is pittting of the cornea caused by an injection or injury.
- 1. Pitting of the cornea caused by an infection or injury.
- 2. Although these ulcers heal with treatment, they can leave a cloudy scar that impairs vision.
Contrast with corneal abrasion
which is a scratch or irritation
to the outer layers
of the cornea.
- 1. Inflammation of the cornea
- 2. Condition can be due to many causes including:
- ......a. Bacteria
- ......b. Virus
- ......c. Fungus
Benign growth on cornea that can become large eough to distort vision.
- 1. Inflammation of the sclera
- 2. This condition is usually associated with:
- .....a. Infection
- .....b. Chemical injuries
- .....c. Autoimmune diseases
Adhesions that bind the iris to an adjacent structure such as the lens or cornea.
- 1. Condition in which the pupils are unequal in size
- 2. Condition can be congenital or caused by a:
- .....a. Head Injury
- .....b. Aneurysm
- .....c. Pathology of the CNS
- 1. Loss of transparency of lens
- 2. Causes a progressive loss of visual clarity.
- 3. Formation of most cataracts is associated with aging
- 4. Condition can be congenital or due to an injury or disease
- Pupils are Equal, Round, Reactive to Light & Accomodation
- 1. Diagnostic observation
- 2. Any abnormality could be an indication of a head injury or damage to the brain.
Retinal detachment (detached retina)
Retina is pulled away from its attachment to the choroid in the back of the eye
Floaters (vitreous floaters)
- 1. Particles of cellular debris
- 2. Float in the vitreous fluid
- 3. Cast shadows on the retina
- 4. Occur normally with aging or in association with:
- .....a. Vitreous detachments
- .....b. Retinal tears
- .....c. Intraocular inflamaation
- Involuntary, constant, rhythmic movement of the eyeball
- 2. Can be congenital or caused b:
- ......a. A neurological injury
- ......b. Drug use
Papilledema (choked disk)
- 1. Swelling & inflammation of the optic nerve at the point of entrance into the eye thru the optic disk.
- 2. This swelling is caused by increased intracranial pressure
- 3. Can be due to a tumor pressing on the optic nerve.
Occurs when a hole develops in the retina as it is pulled away from its normal position
..........(1.) Astigmatism - uneven curvatures ..........(2.) Hyperopia - light focuses too far beyond retina ..........(3.) Myopia - light focuses in front of retinaRetinitis pigmentosa
- 1. Progressive degeneration of the retina
- 2. Affects night & peripheral vision.
- 3. Can be detected by dark pigmented spots in the retina.