Astro Test 3

  1. continuous spectrum
    full spectrum; with neither dark absorbtion nor bright emmision lines,
  2. Spectrum
    electromagnetic radiation; spread into its component wavelengths or colors.
  3. Emmission spectrum
    spectrum of bright lines where little or no radiation is admitted
  4. absorption spectrum
    opposite of emmision spectrum, spectrum which certian wavelengths are darker than wavelengths the missing wavelengths are absorbed by atoms or molecules.
  5. Rarefied gas
    low pressure and low density
  6. superior planets
    orbits outside earths orbit; Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto
  7. inferior planets
    Mercury, Venus; inside earths orbit
  8. Terrestrial planets
    small in size; earth, venus, mars, mercury
  9. Jovian planets
    Jupiter, saturn, uranus, neptune; Large in size
  10. Spectroscopy
    study of spectrum
  11. how spectral lines are produced in low density gas
    emmission spectra lines define the gas
  12. kirchhoff's three laws of spectral analysis
    • 1. continuous spectrum
    • 2. emmission spectrum
    • 3. absorption line spectrum
  13. kirchhoff's three laws of spectral analysis
  14. kirchhoff's three laws of spectral analysis
    Law 1
    contituous spectra; sources emit light in a way that the intensity changes smoothly with wavelengths and all colors are present
  15. kirchhoff's three laws of spectral analysis
    law 2
    emmission spectra; the atoms are hot enough to have exited electrons to energy levels to emit light
  16. kirchhoff's three laws of spectral analysis
    law 3
    Absorption spectra; when a hot gas goes thru a cooler gas between it an the observer.
  17. Planets from smallest to largest
    Pluto, Mercury, Mars, Venus, Earth, Neptune, Uranus, Saturn and Jupiter
  18. linst in order increasing distance from the sun
    mercury, venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, saturn, uranus, neptune, pluto.
  19. period of revolution smallest to largest
    mercury, venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, saturn, uranus, neptune, pluto.
  20. electrons
    negatively charged sub atomic particle
  21. proton
    postivly charged sub atomic particle
  22. nuetron
    no electic charge sub atomic particle
  23. atom
    sub microscopic particle with a nucleus and orbiting electrons
  24. ion
    postively or negatively charged atom
  25. isotope
    has more nuetrons but same number of protons in the nucleus
  26. molecule
    2 or more atoms bonded to a single particle
  27. energy levels
    levels that an electron can occupy.
  28. excitation
    stimulation or exciting the atom by addition of photons/electrons
  29. ionization
    to remove 1 or nore electrons from the atom leaving it with a positive electric charge
  30. Densities of planets highest to lowest
    earth, mercury, venus, mars, Moon, pluto, Neptune, Jupiter, Sun, Uranus, Saturn
  31. thermal energy and temperature
    celcius, farenheit, and Kelvin temperature systems
    • Kelvin temperature is directly proportional to thermal energy.
    • When thermal energy doubles, temperature in Kelvin's also doubles.
    • This is NOT the case with celcius and farenheit.
  32. thermal energy
    the nergy due to the internal vibrations and motions of the atoms within the object.
  33. blackbody
    an object that abosorbs all the radiation falling on it. Because such a body reflects no light, it looks black to us when it is cold.
  34. Wien's Law
    • the wavelengths at which an object radiates most strongly is inversely proportional to the object's temperature.
    • hotter bodies radiate more strongly at shorter wavelenths.
  35. Stefan-Boltzmann Law
    the mathematical form of: the luminosity of a hot body rises rapidly with temperature.
  36. luminosity
    the light output of an object
  37. relationship between Wien's Law and Stefan-Boltzmann Law
    Astronomical objects
    • Heat increasing=luminosity increasing.
    • this relationship between color and temperature allows astronomers to measure the temprature of stars and other astronomical objects from the wavelengths of light they emit.
  38. doppler effect
    light source moving towards us or away from us. Shift is moving to shorter or longer angstrōm. Blue of red shift.
  39. Inverse Square Law
    the apparent brightness of abody decreases inversely as the square of its distance.
  40. satalites smallest to largest
    Mars and venus, earth, mars, pluto, neptune, uranus, saturn, jupiter
  41. masses smallest to largest planets
    pluto, mercury, mars, venus, earth, uranus, neptune, saturn, jupiter
  42. Rotation fastest t oslowest planets
    Jupiter, saturn, neptune, uranus, earth , mars, pluto, mercury, venus
  43. terrestrial means
    there earth like they all have solid surfaces, they have little mass
  44. jovian means
    they are jupiter like they are all made of gases. they have lots of mass
  45. earth characteristics
    • Image Upload 2
    • Round
    • 6378km (diameter)
    • Density- 5.52
    • chemical composition
  46. Earth is how old?
    Rocks on earth date back 3.5 million years.
  47. Earth and other members of the solar system
    • Unlike Jovian planets.
    • Terrestial planets- have mountains, volcanoes, valleys, craters, canyons and river beds. Hard crust.
    • Amosphere has errosion from water and dust.
  48. Greenhouse Effect
    the trapping of heat by a planet's atmosphere, making the planet warmer than would otherwise be expected.
  49. Does the moom rotate like earth?
    Yes. It rotates 2 weeks slower than earth.
  50. According to the moon, how old is the solar system?
    • 4.4 million years.
    • Based on moon rocks.
    • impact craters. More=Older
  51. Mercury
    • Like earth and moon. Terrestial
    • mountains, volcanoes, valleys, cratering, canyons and possible river beds. evidence of tectonic activity.
  52. Venus (compared to earth)
    • topography similar to earth.
    • volcanic activity prominent.
    • tectonic activity possible, but different from earths.
  53. Earth vs. other terrestial planets
    temperature, pressure and chemical composition
    • colder than venus and mercury. hotter than mars.
    • pressure relates to atmosphere.
    • Chemical composition is similar because of volcanic activity and movement of plates.
  54. Structure of terrestial and jovian planets
    • terrestial- Earth-like. All have solid surfaces.
    • jovian- Jupiter-like, all are made of gasses.
  55. Geologic structures and evidence of tectocnic and volcanic activity of mercury, mars, venus compared to earth
    the small number of impact craters on venus and earth implies that they have young surfaces, extensively altered by volcanic activity. on venus, its surface is is thicker the flow of heat to it's surface is more uniformed and therefure it has isolated regions of volcanic activity.
  56. Highest mountain
    • olympus mons. (deepest canyons)
    • Mountains like this one are much taller than mountains on earth.
  57. visible features of jovian atmospheres.
    • Jupiter,redish brown yellow
    • saturn, yellow
    • uranus, blue green
    • neptune, blue
  58. Rings on jovian planets
    All jovian planets have rings. With the exception of pluto.
  59. general composition of jovian planets
    gas and liquid molecular
  60. compositon of the rings of jovian planets
    • they are mainly composed of water ice. However the different colors suggest that they might be made up of other materials . The seperate colors/rings are called ringlets.
    • Material may be added to rings from time to time...origin.
  61. Galilean satellites
    internal structures
    surface structures
    • Internal structure- much like the moon, they have a rocky interior. metalic core.
    • surface structure- volcanic activity, smooth cracked surface, extensive cratering.
  62. Io and Triton's geologic activity
    • volcanic activity.
    • the probable origin of this activity is a hot core. Heat means there are particles moving or vibrating which causes the volcanic explosions.
  63. Gases which compose Titan and Triton's atmospheres.
    • Titan- mostly nitrogen atmosphere. Methane-ethane oceans.
    • Triton- mostly methane atmosphere.
    • There could be life forms there because there is water and oxygen there. It also has earth-like tectonics, erosions, winds and perhaps volcanism.
  64. jovian satelites and terrestial planets
    very similar composures. volcanic activity. tectonic plates. craters.....
  65. Pluto
    Regular planet?!
    • Pluto doesn't fit the qualifications to be neither a jovian planet OR a terrestial planet. you are out of the suck X 10 because Santa Clause a.k.a. Mr. Jordan likes you. ( if i could put a thumbs down, i would!)
    • Black whole?!
  66. Where is the asteroid belt?
    between jupiter and mars.
  67. Different types of asteroids
    called earth-crossing asteroids.
  68. different types of asteroids
    • their perhelion distance is at or near mars orbit.
    • may be gravitationally influenced by jupiter
  69. different types of asteroids
    • located 60 degrees ahead and behind jupiter's orbit.
    • can be gravitationally influenced by saturn.
  70. asteroid
    a small, generally rocky, solid body orbiting the sun and ranging in diameter from a few meters to hundreds of km.
  71. Types of asteroids
    • rich in carbon
    • located in the outer third of belt.
  72. Types of asteroids
    S-Type (stony)
    • missing the dark carbon compounds. silicate minerals present
    • located inner two thirds of belt
  73. Types of asteroids
    M-type (metal)
    • similar to eath rocks.
    • located in the middle third of belt.
  74. Types of asteroids
    similar to volcanic areas in the moon and mars
  75. comet
    a small body in orbit around the sun, consisting of a tiny, icy core and a tail of gas and dust.
  76. head of comet
    • nucleus containing 99.9% of comet's mass.
    • head also contains a coma, which is a cloud of H2 gas.
  77. nucleus of comet
    pretty much the same as the head of the comet
  78. coma of comet
    cloud of H2 gas
  79. tail.
    • Ion- pushed back by solar radiation
    • dust- pushed back by the solar wind.
  80. Kuiper disk
    region containing many large icy bodies and from which some comets come. The region appears to extend from the orbit of neptune past pluto.
  81. Oort cloud
    a vast region in which comet nuclei orbit. This cloud lies far beyond the orbit of pluto and may extend halfway to the next nearest star.
  82. Comets
    • made up of ice and some rocky silicates.
    • all comets seem to originate beyond the orbit of pluto.
    • they are usually highly eccentric and inclined.
    • They come from two regions Kuiper disk (inner) and Oort Cloud (outter region)
  83. comets v. asteroids
    comets form a tail when they are closer to the sun. and when they pass their perihelion region, it looses some of it's composure.

    ASteroids are just rocky solid body. no tail.
  84. meteoroid
    small solid bodies moving within the solar system
  85. meteor
    the bright trail of light created by small solid particles entering the earth's atmospheres and burning up. A.K.A. shooting star.
  86. meteorite
    the remains of a meteor on earth.
  87. relationship of old comet and metoer shower
    Old comets can sometimes spark a meteor shower
  88. Nemesis Theory
    The sun has a companion known as Nemsis, theory on destruction of the earth the 26 million years repetitively
  89. Tungeske Event
    Explosion in 1908 in Siberia, no reamians of a meteor found, thought to be a comet.
Card Set
Astro Test 3
AStro test 3