Skeletal system

  1. What are osteoblast
    Cells that make new bone
  2. What are osteocytes
    Former osteoblast that become buried within the mineralized matrix they produce
  3. What are osteoclast
    • They break down old or damaged bone
    • Release calcium from the bone into the bloodstream
  4. Describe intramembranous ossification
    • The embryonic cells that form the embryonic connective tissue membrane becomes osteoblast
    • The osteoblast secrete bone matrix to form islands of bone that expand in a radial direction
  5. Intramembranous ossification forms what bones in the body
    • The flat bones of the skull
    • The bones of the face
    • The clavicle
  6. Most bones are forms via what process
    Endochondral ossification
  7. Describe Endochondral ossification
    • Embryonic cells become chondroblast which secrete cartilage maatrix
    • This matrix forrms itself into a model of future bone
    • The diaphysis of the future bone is mineralized and blood vessels invade it
  8. What are chondroblast
    Cells that produce cartilage matrix and create a model of bone which is later mineralized
  9. What is located at the ends of the epiphysis
    Articular cartilage
  10. The outer bone is covered with a layer of specialized connective tissue called the
  11. Many joints are mainly composed of
  12. What are tendons
    Tough straps of connective tissue that anchor the skeletal muscle to bone
  13. How many bones are contained in the human endoskeleton
  14. What are the two major subdivisions of the human endoskeleton
    • Axial Skeleton
    • Appendicular Skeleton
  15. How many bones are contained in the Axial Skeleton
  16. How many bones are contained in the Appendicular Skeleton
  17. The axial skeleton consist of the bones of the
    • Head
    • Neck
    • Back
    • Thorax
  18. Main shaft of long bones
  19. The capping at each end of the diaphysis
  20. Thin membrane lining of the medullary cavity
  21. Spongy bone is also called
  22. Most of the long bone ends consist of what kind of bone
    Spongy bone tissue
  23. What is a simple fracture?
    A break in the bone with no damage to the overlying skin
  24. What is a compound fracture?
    A break in the bone that also involves damage to the overlying skin
  25. What is a complete fracture?
    A break all the way through a bone such that two or more seperate pieces result
  26. What is an incomplete or greenstick fracture?
    A break part-way through a bone
  27. Bones are attached to other bones by
  28. What is the haversian system or osteon
    Interlocking spindle shaped units in compact bone
  29. Osteocytes are found in small cavities called
  30. The spaces within the spongy bone are filled with
    Bone marrow
  31. How many bones are in the vertebral column
  32. What are the four regions of the vertebral column
    • Cervical
    • Thoracic
    • Lumbar
    • Sacrum
  33. What is a sinus
    An interior cavity
  34. What is a meatus
    Tubelike passage
  35. What is a fossa
    Shallow depression
  36. What is a foramen
    Round opening
  37. What is a fissure
    Narrow opening
  38. What is a tuberosity
    Large knoblike process
  39. What is a tubercle
    Small knoblike process
  40. What is a crest
    Narrow ridge
  41. An example of a sesamoid bone
    Kneecap or patella
  42. What kind of bone make up the shaft of the long bone and outer surface of other bones
  43. Volkmann's canal
    Perforating canels that provide channels that allow the blood vessels that run through the central canals to connect to the blood vessels in the periosteum that surrounds the bone
  44. Describe spongy bone
    Trabeculae arranged in a latticework network
  45. What is a synovial joint
    Synovial joints have a space between the bones which allow free mobility
  46. What is a nonsynovial joint
    They lack a space between the bones and permit limited or no movement between bones
  47. Another word for nonsynovial joints are
    Synarthroses or solid joints
  48. What are the two categories of Synarthroses joints
    • Fibrous joints
    • Cartilaginous joints
  49. Describe fibrous joints
    Have dense connective tissue between the two bones
  50. What is an example of dense connective tissue
    Sutural joints and Syndesmoses
  51. Joints or articulations help to do what
    • Facilitate growth
    • Permit movement
    • Provide structural support and rigidity
  52. Describe the cartilaginous joints
    They occur when the connective tissue between the bones are cartilage
  53. What determines the type of cartilaginous joint it is
    What type of cartilage they are made of
  54. What is a Synchondrosis joint
    • A cartilaginous joint made of hyaline cartilage
    • That occurs during longitudinal growth of bone
  55. What is a symphysis joint
    A cartilaginous joint made of fibrocartilage
  56. What is an example of symphysis joints
    • Between the vetebral disc
    • Between the two parts of the pubic bone
  57. The most common joints in the body
    Synovial joints
  58. The greatest range of movement are produced in what synovial joint
    Ball and socket
  59. What are the features of the synovial joint
    • Joint capsule
    • Synovial membrane
    • Joint cavity
  60. What is the joint capsule made of
    Dense connective tissue fibers
  61. What is the purpose of the synovial fliud
    To moisten and lubricate the articular surfaces to facilitate smooth joint movement
  62. What is in the synovial fliud
    Primarily plasma and is rich in hyaluronic acid which coats each cell and makes the matrix more resilient
  63. What are the 6 types of synovial joints
    • Condyloid
    • Gliding
    • Saddle
    • Pivot
    • Hinge
    • Ball and socket
  64. Give an example of the condyloid joint
    Joints between the metacarpals and the phalanges
  65. Give an example of the Gliding joint
    Carpal joints of the wrist and the tarsal joints of the ankle
  66. Give an example of the Saddle joint
    Carpometacarpal joint of the thumb
  67. Give an example of the Pivot joint
    • Atlantoaxial joint of first two cervical vertebrae
    • Radioulna joint of the elbow
  68. Give an example of the hinge joint
    • Elbow and knee
    • Allows flexion and extenstion
  69. Give an example of the ball and socket joint
    • Shoulder joint
    • Hip joint
  70. The fusion of what three bones make up the sternum
    • Manubrium
    • Body
    • Xiphoid process
  71. How many pairs of ribs are there?
  72. Ribs 1-7 are called
    True Ribs
  73. Ribs 8-12 are called
    False Ribs
  74. Another word for ribs 8-10 is
    vertebrochondral ribs
  75. Another word for ribs 11-12
    Floating ribs
  76. Another word for C1
  77. Another word for C2
  78. How many bones are in the foot
  79. What are three types of bones in the foot
    • Tarsals
    • Metatarsals
    • Phalanges
  80. How many tarsal bones are in the foot
  81. Name the tarsalĀ  bones
    • Calcaneus
    • Talus
    • Navicular
    • First cuneiform
    • Second cuneiform
    • Third cuneiform
    • Cuboid
  82. What are the three sections of the phalanges
    • Distal
    • Middle
    • Proximal
  83. What are the two arches of the foot
    • Longitudinal
    • Transverse
  84. Shinbone
  85. What is the degree of the pubic arch on a male
    less than 90 degrees
  86. What is the degree of the pubic arch on a female
    Greater than 90 degrees
  87. Bone that forms the lower and back part of the hipbone
  88. Pubis
    Bone that forms the front part of the pelvis
  89. Socket that fits the ball shaped top of the thigh
  90. How many bones are in the hand
  91. How many carpal bones are in the hand
  92. Name the carpal bones of the hand
    • Lunate
    • Scaphoid
    • Pisiform
    • Triquetrum
    • Hamate
    • Capitate
    • Trapezoid
    • Trapezium
  93. Thumb bone
  94. How many phalanges do we have
  95. Where are the tiniest bones in the body located
    The ear
  96. What are the three little bones in the middle ears called
  97. Name the little bones in the midde ear
    • Malleus
    • Incus or anvil
    • Stapes or stirrups
Card Set
Skeletal system
Skeletal system