What are the formed elements that make up blood?
Where are RBC produced?
Red bone marrow
oringinate from megakaryocytes
Where do platelets originate
Red bone marrow from megakaryocytes
Where are WBC produced?
- Red bone marrow
- Lymphatic tissue
What is the function of RBC?
- contain hemoglobin
- transports Oxygen
What is the function of platelets?
prevent blood loss
What is the function of WBC?
defense against pathogens
What is plasma?
- liquid portion of blood
- transport medium
What is a CBC?
complete blood count
What is a normal RBC count range in a CBC?
What is a normal WBC count in a CBC?
What are normal male and female counts for hemoglobin?
- Male- 13.5-18g/dl(g/100ml)
- Female- 12-16g/dl(g/100ml)
Percent of RBC in a volume of whole blood
What are normal male and female percentages for a hematocrit
- Female- 37-48%
Decrease in the total number or quality of RBC and/or hemoglobin
What is the etiology of anemia?
Removal or loss of RBC exceeds replacementa capacity of the bone marrow
Decrease in production
What are the common signs and symtoms of anemia?
- pale skin
- fatigue/muscle weakness
- dyspena/shortness of breath
- vital signs
- brittle nails
What causes the pale skin in a person with anemia?
What causes the fatigue and muscle weakness in a person with anemia?
Inadequate Oxygen = less ATP= less cellular metabolism
What causes the Dyspensa in a person with anemia?
Compensatory for the lack of oxygen
What causes the palpitations in a person with anemia?
- heart tries to pump more O2 to tissue
What happens to the vital signs in a person with anemia? Why?
- lower BP
- heart rate increases, blood pressure goes down, trying to get blood to tissue faster
Why do patients with anemia get brittle nails?
- impaired proliferation of epithelial cells
- Late Sign
What is parethesia and what causes it in patients with anemia?
- neuronal hypoxia( neurons not getting enough O2)
How are anemias classified?
color and size of RBC
abnormally large cells
cells of normal size
abnormally small cells
What provides a quick and easy way to evaluate RBC size and shape, and their hemoglobin content
RBC with High concentration of hemoglobin in the cytoplasm
RBC with normal amounts of hemoglobin
RBC with low amounts of hemoglobin in cytoplasm
What are three specific types of anemia?
- Iron deficiency
What is the etiology of iron deficiency anemia?
- microcytic-hypochromic anemia
- chronic bleeding
- iron deficient diet
- impaired duodenal absorption of iron
- malabsorption syndrome
Abnormal condition caused by the absence of HCL in the gastric juice
interferes with early protein digestion and iron absorption
What are additional signs and symptoms for iron deficency anemia?
Ulcers in the oral mucosa
Inflammation of the tongue
What diagnostic test are used to confirm iron deficency anemia?
- Decrease in hemoglobin & hematocrit
- Serum Ferratin decreased
- Serum Iron decreased
- Transferrian Saturation decreased
storage form of iron
formed in intestine
stored in liver, spleen , and bone marrow
Trace protein in blood that transports iron from intestine to bone marrow
What is the treatment for iron deficiency anemia?
- treat underlying cause
- iron supplement
- diet changes
Complications of iron deficiency anemia?
What is the prognosis for iron deficiency anemia?
- Good if underlying issue is addressed
- supplements help
In what type of anemia is jaundice more likely to occur?
What type of diorder is Sickle Cell Anemia?
What type of anemia can cause vascuar occlusion and infarctions in various organs?
What type of anemia is caused by lack of intrinsic factor?
What type of anemia is charcterized by neurological symptoms such as a lack of muscle coordination?
What type of anemia is likely to cause an inflammation of the tongue?
How are Lukemias classified?
by the type of WBC that has undergone malignant transformation
Which of the following is not a charecteristic of Lukemia?
What type of disorder is Hemophilia?
sex linked recessive