Hist. Final Part 1

  1. détente
    is the easing of strained relations, especially in a political situation. The term is often used in reference to the general easing of relations between the Soviet Union and the United States, a thawing at a period roughly in the middle of the Cold War. In the Soviet Union, détente was known in Russian: as разрядка("razryadka", loosely meaning relaxation, discharge).
  2. To win the election Nixon said
    he had a secret plan to end the war in Vietnam. In fact his plan was not that good.
  3. My Lai Massacre-
    · March 16, 1968 William Calley led the massacre of over 200 villagers. He was sentenced to a life sentence but pardoned by Nixon
  4. Vietnam destroyed
    Johnson and Nixon's presidencies
  5. Nixon and Kissinger plan in Vietnam
    · Vietnamization - Vietnamese should win the war for themselves. US should be able to withdraw.
  6. Nixon Doctrine
    · Occasionally known as the Guam doctrine. The United States would draw down their forces expecting local governments to defend themselves. This was we could get what we wanted without paying for it.
  7. In Vietnam, the Nixon doctrine meant
    • · More air and sea power but drawdown of American troops on land.
    • · During 1970's, thousands of troops began to leave Vietnam
    • · While withdrawing troops, Nixon and Kissinger wanted to win in Vietnam
  8. Nixon and Kissinger hoped to win Vietnam by
  9. In 1969 Nixon ordered
    • · Secret bombing of Cambodia of the Ho Chi Mihn trail
    • · Allies of Hanoi (Soviet Union, China) knew bombing was taking place
    • · The American people did not know this bombing was taking place
    • · New York Times and other news papers began to report on this bombing
    • · Nixon thought there must have been a leak. Nixon authorized 17 illegal wire taps of the phones of journalists and people in the administration. Kissinger provided the list of names, and later claimed he was innocent.
  10. 1970 Troops invaded
    • · Neutral country of Cambodia.
    • · People were shocked. They thought Vietnamization was happening but we were actually expanding the war.
    • · Protests happened. Ohio national guard killed 4 students. In Mississippi 4 more were killed.
  11. June 13 1971 NYT began to publish the Pentagon Papers.
    • · Multi-volume collection of Federal Documents from 1945 through 1968
    • · Daniel Elsburg supplied zerox copies to Washington post, New York Times, and others.
    • · Nixon created the Plumbers Unit to stop the leaks into the Press.
    • · Nixon tried through the courts to stop the papers, but the supreme court would not allow this sort of censorship of the press
  12. June 17, 1972 - the Plumbers broke into the Watergate complex
    and lead to the Watergate scandal and led to Aug 9 1974 Nixon resigned
  13. By eave of election in 1972, the agreement they took was the same Johnson and Nixon were offered.
    • · War could end if Americans would leave. If Hanoi would be able to seize the south.
    • · They said "peace was coming" during re-election. Nixon and Kissinger
    • · After the election, no peace agreement was reached. Nixon and Kissinger blamed the Hanoi government
  14. Nixon unleashed the Christmas Bombing
    • · 1972 and into 1973
    • · Led to Paris Peace Accords Jan 17 1973 that were the same offered previously. All US got was POW's back.
  15. Final collapse of Vietnam
    happened April 29, 1979
  16. Nixon resigned because he otherwise would have been impeached.
    • · If he resigned he would keep the perks of being an ex president (secret service, pension, library)
    • · Gerald Ford was in office for the collapse of South Vietnam
  17. Nixon and Kissinger saw the world as a triangular relationship
    • · US relationship with Soviet Union and Peoples Republic of China
    • · It was essential to a detaunt with Russia and China
    • · Nixon and Kissinger used new terminology for the same old view of communist conspiracy
    • · On occasion they talked about a pentagonal relationship
    • · Essentially said that the Western Europe powers were not as important
  18. This created strains in US relationships with Japan and Western Europe because they did not think they should be secondary.
    · Nixon outlined his new conception of the world in an interview with Time magazine in 1970. Only time there is peace is when there is a balance of power. Nixon believed with US powerful, strong Russia, Western Europe, and China. An even balance.
  19. By early 1970s, within UN there was a growing movement within
    · non aligned countries to kick out nationalist delegation and replace it with peoples republic of china from Beijing delegation
  20. Nixon and Kissinger
    acknowledged peaceful change.
    • though Taiwan should come
    • under rule of Beijing eventually in a peaceful way
  21. Japanese warned
    US not to take
    • · Japanese for granted
    • · Japanese ambassador openly criticized American policy
    • · Began to negotiate with Russia for oil and ending the second world war with a peace treaty
    • · By 1978 Japan and Russia would end the war officially
    • · Also sent first official mission to Hano, if Americans were going to deal with China then Japanese would deal with North
    • Vietnam, Also sent diplomatic negotiations to Mongolia
  22. American relationship with India also decreased
    · Pakistan was traditional enemy of India.
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Hist. Final Part 1