What does York do when he becomes Lord Protector the first time when?
- He imprisons Somerset
- Banishes Margaret of Anjou to Windsor Castle to look after Henry.
- (Important to note that York managed to become Protector largely due to help of Warwick.)
Give two cases when York shows loyalty to the king?
- After Dartford in 1452, he swears an oath of allegiance to the king.
- After the victory of St. Albans 1455, Henry still reaffirmed his allegiance to the king.
When does Henry VI fall into his second bout of insanity?
November 1455 - February 1456
After Henry VI recovered from his second bout of insanity, what actions did he take which further show how he was not politically skilled or aware?
- Henry granted York pay off of over 1,800 pounds in arrears during first protectorate, and promise of more for the second.
- Warwick was given captaincy of Calais.
- (Henry was being extraordinarily generous to these men who should have been charged with treason! Was allowing them another chance to attack his throne.)
What did Henry do to attempt to engineer reconciliation between the 2 rival factions? When?
- March 1458
- Public show of reconciliation engineered by the king what was known as the "Love day" - where the factions (Warwick and Margaret etc) walked down St. Paul's arm in arm.
What did Margaret (and Henry, mainly Margaret) do when to further worsen the relations between the two factions and provoke war? What else in the same year?
- 1459 - Great Council held in Coventry called by Margaret and Henry.
- York and Warwick were indicted for treason (in their absence).
- York and Warwick responded by raising armies.
- Later 1459 - Parliament of Devils (also by Buckingham).
What battle did the Great council in coventry and the indictment of York and Warwick lead to? What was the result?
- Battle of Blore Heath
- Sept 1459
- Yorkist victory (mainly by Earl of Salisbury)
After the battle of Blore Heath, what happened (battle-wise) in the same year?
- October 1459
- Rout of Ludford
- Yorkists fled - York fled to Ireland; Warwick, Salisbury and Edward (future Edward IV) fled to Calais.
Outline the main figures in each side (Yorkist and Lancastrian) at this point (1459).
- Yorkist: York, Edward Earl of March, Warwick, Salisbury
- Lancastrian: Henry VI, Margaret of Anjou, Duke of Buckingham.
When was the Parliament of Devils and what happened here? Who was it called by?
- November 1459
- York, Warwick and other Yorkists were attainted for treason and sentenced to death, their lands forfeited and their heirs lost their inheritance.
- Called by Margaret of Anjou, King, and Duke of Buckingham.
What battle did the Parliament of Devils lead to? When? Results?
- Battle of Northampton, July 1460.
- Led by Warwick (York still in Ireland), also Edward Earl of March proved that he was militarily skilled.
- Yorkist victory. Duke of Buckingham died, the king captured.
Where did the Yorkists rally support before the Battle of Northampton? Why was this possible?
- Through Kent to London.
- Because merchants supported the captain of Calais, which was Warwick.
After the Battle of Northampton, what happened?
- Parliament pass the Act of Accord, 1460.
- Henry VI was to retain throne, but his son (Prince Edward) was disinherited and York and his heirs should inherit on Henry's death. (York 10yrs older than Henry)
- It is only now, 1460, that York made a dynastic claim to the throne.
What happened (battle-wise) after this Act of Accord of 1460?
- Margaret gathered large army in north (unpaid disorderly troops, lots of looting).
- York set out to meet her with an army.
- Duke of York killed at Battle of Wakefield (December 1460), Earl of Salisbury also executed.
Outline the 2 battles that occured that led to Edward's coronation in 1461?
- Feb 1461 - Battle of Mortimer's Cross - Edward Earl of March defeated Jasper Tudor in Wales.
- Later Feb 1461 - Second battle of St. Albans - Warwick vs Queen - Lancastrian victory, Henry VI freed. Londoners become anxious - did not want to let her violent, looting army into London. As result, Queen withdrew troops to Dunstable to negotiate.
What happened after the second battle of St. Albans? (1461)
- Yorkists had time to gather troops, Edward (now Duke of York), arrived in London with his forces, and was allowed to enter.
- Henry, Queen and Prince Edward fled North.
- Edward IV was proclaimed king on grounds of his victory and Mortimer's Cross and Lords in Parliament declared his claim to be superior to Henry VI's.
What was the last decisive victory for Edward IV immediately after his coronation?
- March 1461 - Battle of Towton - Largest battle of the period, possibly 50,000 men fought in snowstorm.
- Yorkist victory.
- But Henry VI, Queen and prince Edward still managed to escape north.
Why and with what justification was Edward IV crowned king in 1561?
- He had support of the merchants. (London afraid of MofA's army, Warwick captain of Calais, Henry VI's poor treatment of economy and the merchants).
- Military victory at Mortimer's Cross (proved himself as military leader)
- Dynastic claim to the throne, which was recognised by Parliament.