1. • Ptosis
    • Ptosis: drooping eyelid
  2. Nystagmus
    Nystagmus: oscillating movement of eyeball
  3. Amsler grid
    • Amsler grid - often
    • used for patients with macular problems, such as macular degeneration. It
    • consists of a geometric grid of identical squares with a central fixation
    • point. The grid should be viewed by the patient wearing normal reading glasses.
    • Each eye is tested separately. The patient is instructed to stare at the
    • central fixation spot on the grid and report any distortion in the squares of
    • the grid itself. For patients with macular
    • problems, some of the squares may look faded, or the lines may be wavy.
  4. Ultrasonography .
    • Ultrasonography - Ultrasonography is a very
    • valuable diagnostic technique, especially when the view of the retina is
    • obscured by opaque media such as cataract or hemorrhage. Ultrasonography can be used to identify orbital tumors,
    • retinal detachment, and changes in tissue composition.
  5. Fluorescein
    • Fluorescein - Fluorescein
    • angiography evaluates clinically significant macular edema, documents macular
    • capillary nonperfusion, and identifies retinal and choroidal neovascularization
    • (growth of abnormal new blood vessels) in age-related macular degeneration. It
    • is an invasive procedure in which fluorescein dye is
    • injected, usually into an antecubital vein. Within 10 to 15 seconds, this dye
    • can be seen coursing through the retinal vessels. Over a 10-minute period,
    • se-rial black-and-white photographs are taken of the retinal vasculature. The
    • dye may impart a gold tone to the skin of some patients, and urine may turn
    • deep yellow or orange. This discoloration usually disappears in 24 hours
  6. indocyanine green angiography
    • indocyanine green angiography - used to evaluate
    • abnormalities in the choroidal vasculature, conditions often seen in macular degeneration.
    • Indocyanine green dye is injected intravenously (IV), and multiple images are
    • captured using digital videoangiography over a period of 30 seconds to 20
    • minutes.
  7. • Tonometry
    • • Tonometry - Measures intraocular
    • pressure
  8. Gonioscopy
    Gonioscopy - Visualizes the angle of the anterior chamber
  9. Scotomas
    Scotomas: blind areas in the visual field
  10. Emmetropia
    • Emmetropia: normal vision

  11. • Myopia


  12. • Hyperopia:


  13. • Astigmatism:

    distortion due to irregularity of the cornea

  14. • Eyeball Shape

    • Determines Visual Acuity in Refractive

    • Errors


    • A group of
    • ocular conditions in which damage to the optic nerve is related to increased intraocular
    • pressure (IOP) caused by congestion of the aqueous humor

    • • The
    • leading cause of blindness in adults in the U.S.; incidence increases with age
  16. Risk factors: for Glaucoma
    • Family history of glaucoma
    • African-American
    • race
    • Older age
    • Diabetes
    • mellitus
    • Cardiovascular
    • disease
    • Migraine
    • syndromes
    • Nearsightedness
    • (myopia)
    • Eye trauma
    • Prolonged
    • use of topical or systemic corticosteroids
  17. normal intraocular pressure
    between 10mm Hg and 21mm Hg
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