1. anuria
    (is present when less than 100 ml of urine is excreted in 24 hrs)
    absence of urine
  2. cystitis
    inflammation of the bladder
  3. dysuria
    (inflammation is present in the bladder, and is usually due to infection or trama)
    painful urination
  4. hematuia
    • blood in the urine
    • (occurs when there is bleeding somewhere in the urinary system)
  5. ketonuria
    • ketones in the urine
    • (occurs when the patient is in ketoacidosis, and in uncontrolled DM)
  6. oliguria
    (occurs when urine output falls below 400 ml in 24 hrs, may be a sign of kidney failure, blockage of urine outflow somewhere in the system, or retention)
    decreased urine output
  7. polyuria
    (output greater than 1500 ml in 24hours, associated with DM, in which there is an absence of insulin, or diabetes insipidus, in which there is a decreased in the production of ADH)
    excessive urination
  8. pyuria
    • pus in the urine
    • (occurs when there is bacterial infection present in the kidney or bladder, bacteria will be present in the urine in large numbers)
  9. stricture
    narrowing, usually of a tube or opening
  10. urostomy
    opening through which urine drains
  11. when the pt has to urinate several time through the night
  12. urine left in the bladder after urination
    residual urine
  13. list symptoms that would indicate the need for a urine specimen to check for cystitis
    • -frequency of urination
    • - urgency
    • - dysuria
    • - burning
    • - malaise
    • - foul-smelling urine
    • - a slight temperature elevation
  14. urinating
  15. various medications cause urine _____ as a side effect, particularly in the male
  16. ________ is performed when the patient is unable to eliminate urine from the bladder
  17. carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body
  18. Extracts metabolic waste
  19. manufactures urine
  20. carries urine from the kidney to the bladder
  21. control the release of urine from the bladder
  22. consist of a cluster of capillaries and a system of tubules
  23. list reasons urinary catheter may be ordered
    • -When the patient cannot empty the bladder for more than 8 hours
    • - To prepare for drainage of urine during a surgical procedure or after an obstetrical procedure
    • - To help dilate the urethral opening
    • - To splint the urethra after surgery
    • - To measure residual urine
    • - To monitor urine output accurately
    • - To provide an avenue for bladder irrigation
    • - Assist with retoning of the bladder after bladder surgery
  24. when catherizing a patient you accidentally contaminate the catheter. you must
    • -discard the catheter and use a sterile one
    • in order to avoid introducing bacteria into the bladder
  25. intermittent catherization is used for patients who
    • regularly experience urinary retention or incontinence
    • (such as those who have a neuromuscular problem that prevents them from emptying the bladder normally)
  26. three reasons bladder irrigation may be ordered are to
    • -Wash out residual urine or sediment from the bladder
    • -Remove clots and stop oozing of blood after prostate or bladder surgery
    • - Soothe irritated bladder tissues and promote healing
    • - Ensure that the lumen of the indwelling catheter is open and draining
    • - Instill medication into the bladder.
  27. measures that should be instituted to prevent cystitis when a patient has an indwelling catheter include
    • -encourage a large fluid intake unless contraindicated
    • - include cranberry juice in the diet
    • - provide supplemental vitamin C
    • - maintain sterility when emptying the collection bag
    • - clean around the urinary meatus and rinse well at least once a day
  28. an important principle to be applied when irrigating the bladder is
    always maintain aspectic technique
  29. urinary incontinence can be managed by
    • -bladder retraining program
    • - use of a condom catheter
    • - teaching Kegel exercises
    • - toileting every 2 hours while awake
    • - using adult briefs or absorbent pads
    • - surgical correction of the problem
    • - drug therapy
  30. when preparing a urine specimen to send to the lab, you should
    • -label the specimen correctly with the
    • (patient’s name, room number, physician’s name, date and time)
    • - place the container in a biohazard transport bag
    • - transport it to the lab within 15 minutes of collection (refrigerate it until specimen pick-up time)
  31. the adult bladder hold how much urine
    1000-1800 ml
  32. foul-smellin urine may indicate
  33. each patient should void at least every ____ hours
  34. a urine specific of 1.030 may indicate
  35. what type of catheter is curved and has a rounded tip that is easier to insert in to the male when the prostate is enlarged?
    Coude catheter
  36. what may be used to soothe irriated bladder tissues and promote healing
    a bladder instilllation
  37. infants may excrete urine
    5-40 x a day
  38. preschool children may void
    every 2 hours
  39. the adult voids on average
    5-10 x a day
  40. on average the adult male voids how much urine
    300-500 ml
  41. on average the adult female voids how much urine
    250 ml
  42. there should be an hourly output of how much urine, which reflects adequate kidney perfusion; this amount to _____ in 24 hours
    30 ml ; 720 ml
  43. urinary elimination is effected by
    • -neurologic and muscle development
    • -alterations in spinal cord integrity
    • -the volume of fluid intake
    • -the amount of fluid lost by perspiration,vomiting, diarrhea
    • -the amount of ADH (antidiuretic hormone) secreated by the pituitary gland
  44. if the urine odor resembles acetone ______ is present
  45. ________ is the thinness or thickness of the urine, what is the normal range
    specific gravity; 1.010-1.030
  46. what is the pH of normal urine
  47. occurs in increased numbers in the presence of bateria or protein, and indicate urinary calculi (stones), or renal disease
  48. in the urine suggest liver disease or obstruction of the bile duct
  49. what is the crede maneuver
    massage from the top of the bladder to the bottom by starting above the pubic bone and rocking the palm of the hand steadily downward.
  50. stricture
    narrowed lumen
  51. suprapubic
    above the pubic bone
  52. used for continous drainage, particulary postoperatively and can be used for suprapubic drainage
    foley catheter
  53. used for continuous bladder irrigation following prostate or bladder surgery
    (three lumens, one for urine drainage, one for the inflation of the ballon, and one for the instillation of the irrigation fluid)
    alcock catheter
  54. has a tip shaped like a mushroom, it is used for suprapubic drainage
    de pezzer catheter
  55. often used as a nephrostomy tube, it is placed into the pelvis of the kidneys
    malecot catheter
  56. less invasive catheter, less like to get a UTI
    condom catheter
  57. used for drainage following gynecologic and bladder surgery
    suprapubic catheter
  58. what are the six types of incontinence
    • -urge
    • -stress
    • -total
    • -overflow
    • -functional
    • -reflex
  59. urinary diversion is when
    the bladder must be removed or by passed for some reason
  60. urge incontience
    there is involuntary loss of urine in response to a strong sensation of need to empty the bladder (urinary urgency)
  61. stress incontience
    there is a urethral sphincter failure; often associated with intra-abdominal pressure, as occurs with sneezing, laughing, coughing, and aerobic exercise
  62. total incontience
    a combination of different types such as stress and urge incontience
  63. overflow incontience
    there is poor contractiality of the detrusor muscle of the bladder, obstruction of the urethra as in prostate enlargement in the male, or genital prolaspe or abnormality in the female
  64. functional incontience
    caused by cognitive inability to recognize the urge to urinate, extreme depression, or dementia. Inability to reach a bathroom due to restraints, side rails, or an out-of-reach walker can also result in this type of incontience
  65. reflex incontience
    caused by a disorder of the neurologic system such as multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injury, or stroke
  66. _______ and ______ decrease with age. in males the _____ can enlarge and may lead to urethral obstruction
    • kidney function and bladder muscle tone;
    • prostate gland
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