Medical Micro - Sheet1(1).csv

  1. Animalcules
    Way back in 1674 Leeuwenhoek discovered bacteria under homemade microscopes and called them animalcules
  2. Germ theory
    "Proposed in 1840 by Friedrich Henle. Stated that an organism can cause infection in another organism. The material of
  3. contagions is not only an organic but a living one and is indeed endowed with a life of its own
    which is in relation to the diseased body
  4. Robert Koch
    former student of Henle. Isolated Bacillus anthracis. Vibrio cholera. Mycobacterium tuburculosis. Published Koch's postulate in 1890
  5. Koch Postulate
    Explained the technique to isolate and identity diseases causing pathogens. Isolate the organism out of the infected organism. Then grow it and innoculate that another host with that same bacteria and should cause the same illness.
  6. Ignaz Philipp Semmelweis
    1818-1865. Discovered the importance of handwashing but never got recognition for his attempt to apply these techniques developing medical practices.
  7. Paul Ehrlich
    1910 Discovered first medical antibiotic agent. arsinic based Salvarsan which was used to treat Syphilis
  8. Alexander Fleming
    1928 Discovered penicillin. Wasnt mass produced until WWII (1942) to prevent soliders from dying from infections. This was the start of the antibiotic era.
  9. Illnesses caused by Staphococcus aureus.
    Pneumonia. Endocartitis. Food poisoning. Wound infections
  10. Saprophyte vs commensal vs parasite
    Saprophyte lives on dead organic material. Commensal organism that lives in or on another organism with one befitting the other other having no effect.. parasite one organism benefits the other is harmed. Normally talking about Eukaryote parasites
  11. Saprophyte
    Is an organism that is growing on dead organic material
  12. True pathogen vs opportunistic pathogen
    True Pathogen is a disease causing organism. Opportunistic pathogen does not normally cause disease but under certain conditions it can cause disease.
  13. Exogenous vs endogenous infection
    Exogenous is an infection caused from an outside organism (ex. fomite. soil. etc). Endogenous infection is coming from an opportunistic infection (normal flora or latent infection).
  14. Colonization vs disease
    Colonization is an infection in which the organism is growing but does not causes symptoms. Disease is where the growth of the bacteria causes infection.
  15. MRSA
    is resistant to methicillin and all the drugs similar to this. (1960)
  16. outcomes when a microbe infects a host
    1. Transient colonization: infection comes in and tries to take hold but only lasts a short period of time. 2. Long-term symbiosis: Where the infection takes hold and stays in for a long time (ex. bacteria in gut) 3. Disease: the microbe comes in and colonizes and causes infection and harm to the host
  17. Influences on a microbe infection
    1. Number of microbes. 2. Type of organism. 3. Host 4. Health status of host. 5. Age of host. 6. Gender 7. Environment 8. Money (publich health. education. treatment).
  18. Latent vs. persistent infection
    Latent: the organism is colonized but not causing any symptoms but can flare up and cause disease again. Persistent infection is causing symptoms the whole time and is around for a long period of time
  19. Clinical vs. subclinical disease
    Subclinical disesae: mild symptoms and not openly overt. Clinical disease is very obvious and can be diagnosed.
  20. Progession of infection/disease
    Incubation (colonizes). Prodromal phase (starting to show some symptoms). Invasion phase (diagnosis most symptoms showing). Acme (the high of the infection most severe). Decline phase.
  21. Four cardinal signs of inflammation:
    1. Swelling (tumor) blood vessels dilate 2. Redness (rubor) the capillaries become leaky with more blood to the area 3. Heat: localized heat (calor) 4. Pain (dalor)
  22. Infectivity
    Colonization. Organism infecting and growing and reproducing within the host.
  23. Pathogenicity
    The ability of an organism to cause disease
  24. Virulence
    The degree of pathogenicity. How much harm can the disease cause.
  25. Measure of virulence
    Can be calculated by number of death. How many organism does it take to cause death. The LD. Lethal dose.
  26. Growth characteristics
    How the bacteria grow on the agar. Colony formation. Form: the shape of the colony. Elevation. Margins.
  27. Cell morphology and arrangement
    Cocci. Bacillus. Rod shaped. Coccobacillus (ecoli). Fusiform bacillus. Vibrio. Sprillum. Spirochete.
  28. Gam postive cell wall info
    Contains peptidoglycan. Lipoteichoic acid bound to the cytoplasmic membrane forms a matrix structure with teichoic acid.
  29. Gram negative cell wall info
    Very small peptidoglycan layer. Has an outer membrane with lipopolysaccharides (LPS can be used for identification) attached to it. Contains pores (porins). Has a periplasmic space. Direct linking between animo acids in cell wall.
  30. Metabolic signature
    What enzymes do they produce. Ex. manitol fermination (MSA). Catalase positive. Aerobic glucose metabolism. fermination. anarobic respiration is not fermination.
  31. Serotyping
    What surface antigens the microbe displays . Can be used to classify
  32. Genetic analysis
    Used to classify to subspecies level. Use DNA hybridization. PCR. rRNA. whole genome sequencing
  33. Horizontal Gene transfer types
    Transfromation: uptake of genetic material by competent cell. Conjugation uptake of foreign DNA by pilus. Transduction: use of a transducing phage. Can take place between species
  34. Antibotic resistance are located
    Located on plasmid of bacteria. Can be passed via transformation or conjugation.
  35. Colonization of sterile sites in the healthy individuals
    Colonization of one these sites generally involves a defect or breach in the natural defenses that creates a portal of entry
  36. Resident Biota
    The human as a habitat. Cell for cell microbes on the human body outnumber human cells at least ten to tone. Normal (resident) biota. Metagenoic being used to identify the microbial profile inside and on humans. Human microbiome project.
  37. Acquring Resident Biota
    The body provies a wide range of habitats and supports a wide range of microbes
  38. HMP
    Human microbiome project. 1. Determine whether individual share a core human microbiome. 2. Understanding whether change in the human microbiome can be correlated with changes in human health.
  39. Habitat of microbes
    Habitat (location) Is the main driving force differences of bacteria in different regions.
  40. Different habitats for microbes
    Upper respiratory tract. Lower respir. tract. GI tract (stomach/small intestine/large intestine). Gentiourinary Tract.
  41. GI tract large intestine (colon) most abundant microbe
    Bacteroides more prevalent than E. coli.
  42. Gut microbiome affects
    "1. Vitamin production (K).2. Development of innate and adaptive immunity. (outcompete foreign microbe 3.Turnover of gut epithelial cells. 4. Metabolism of drugs. 5. Harvest of nutreints/energy. 6. Propensity to develop obesity. 7. Organ size (heart
  43. Microbe habitat vagina
    Diverse population of microbes. Varies due to hormone levels. The vaginal microbiota affects the health of women and impacts the success of pregnancy. Vagina hosts unique consortia of microbes suggesting selection for these key organisms
  44. Bacterial Vaginosis
    BV. Is a condition linked to numerous health including. The most prevalent cause of vaginal symptoms among women of childbearing age. About 4 million visits in US. High rate of relapse cause is unknown. Normally contains few types lactobacillus. During BV contains a greater diversity of morphotypes and clue cells. INCREASES RICHNESS AND DIVERSITY OF MICROBES. Treatment with antibiotics result in a rapid decline of anaerobic bacteria.
  45. Skin microbes and habitat
    Is transiently colonized. Mostly gram positive bacteria.
  46. Virulence
    The degree of pathnogenicty. Determined by its ability to establish itself in the host and cause damage. Different healthy individual share widely varying responses to the same microorganism. host evolve.
  47. Virulence factors (ones that aid in virulence)
    Any characteristic or structure of the microbe that contributes to its virulence. Adhesins. 1.Invasins. 2. Toxins. 3. Byproduct of growth. 4. Mechanisms to evade immune response. 5. Ability to grow intracellularly.
  48. Microbes cause disease by
    1. Gaining access to the host.(routes of transmission) 2. Adhering to and colonizing cell surfaces. 3. Invading tissues. 4. Producing toxins and other harmful metabolic substances.
  49. Pathogenesis of Bacterial Disease
    Maintain a reservior. Initial transport to /entry into host. Adhere to colonize or invade host cells. Evade host defenses. Multiply (damage to host). Return to environment (shedding).
  50. Pedestals
    E. coli remain extracellular and induce the formation of pedestals on the host cell surface. Help them to stick on hold onto the cell.
  51. Surface cell adhesion
    Salmonella typhirum. Have surface cell adhesions. Enter the epithelia cells and can be taken up by macrophages. Inside the phage can live and grow within the vacuole. Allows transport and a growth environment of the microbe.
  52. Hyaluronidase
    Digests hyaluronic acid that holds cells together. S. pyogenes
  53. Coagulase
    Contributes to clotting of blood. Wall of protection form immune defesnes. S. aureus
  54. Streptokinase
    Disssolve blood clooting. Free themselves from blood clots so they can spread.
  55. Macrophage survival
    Some organsims survive within host phagocytic cells (escape destruction and obtain free transportaion to deeper body tissue). Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Neiseria gonorrhoeae
  56. Endotoxins
    Part of the bacterial cell. A componenet of the outher membrane of Gram negative bacteria. Ex. LPS (lipopolysaccharides) . Also known as lipid A. Heat stable. Relatively less toxic. Not convertible to toxoids. Poor neutralized by antibodies. Siilar toxicites for most tissues and cells low blood pressure and raised temperature. may cause endotoxic shock. generalized organ failure. intravascular coagulation and death.
  57. Toxin
    Any substance that is poisonous to other organism. According to hwo the toxins are released from the bacterial cells endo/exo toxins.
  58. Exotoxins
    Specific to a particular bacterial species that produces the disease associated with the toxin. Clostridium tetani produces tetanus toxin. Viruulent strains produce toxins while avirulent strains do not. Toxin is the major determination of virulence. Produced by both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. Usually secreted and are proteins. Highly toxic in very low concentrations
  59. Info on exotoxin proteins
    Protein toxins resemble enzymes. Denatured by heat. Acid and proteolyic enzymes. High a high biological activity (most act catalytically). Strongly antigenic and can be readily neutralized by antibodies. Unstable lost toxicity (retain antigenicity) toxoid. immunizing capacity.
  60. Toxoid
    "Loses toxicity
  61. Diphtheria toxin
    Produced by Corynebacterium diptheriae. Very potent in its action. AB toxin. B is binding part of toxin. A subunit is lethal single diphteria bacillus can produce 5000 molecules per hour. INTERRUPTS PEPTIDE FORMATION AT THE RIBOSOMAL LEVEL.
  62. Hemolysins
    Alpha: hemolyze blood cells partially breakdown hemoglobin produce greenish ring around colonies. Beta hemolysins hemolyze blood cells.
  63. Leukocidins
    Exotoxins produced by many bacteria like Streptococci or Staphylococci. Destroy neutrophils and macrophages. More effective when released by microbes engulfed by neutrophil. Count of WBC decrease
  64. Leukostatin
    Exotoxins interferes with teh ability of leukocytes to engulf microrganisms that secrete the exotoxin.
  65. Toxemia
    The spreading of exotoxins by blood from the site of infection. Some diseases caused due to ingestion of preformed toxins. Called intoxications. Foodborne botulism. Neurotoxin that causes a flaccid paralyis where muscles go limp.
  66. Botulism
    Clostridum botulinum. Gram-positive endospore forming anaerobe ubiquitous in soil in water. Exotoxins A. B. E cause most human illness. Mechanism of action. Irreversible inhibition of ACh release from motor neuron. Can be treated antibiotics. Prevention proper canning. Nitrites prevent endospre germination in sausages.
  67. Vibrio cholerae
    GI toxin (enterotoxin). Causes diarrhea due to loss of cell nutrients. Caused by increased cAMP activity.
  68. Evasion of Host Defenses
    Resistance to phagocytosis by macrophages and neutrophils. Survival inside phagocytic cells. Antigenic variation. Destruction of antibodies complement.
Card Set
Medical Micro - Sheet1(1).csv
Med micro