OB Chapter 4

  1. What are the three elements of motivation?
    - intensity


    - persistence
  2. Douglas McGregor proposed what two distinct view of human beings?
    Theory X - Employees dislike work, will attempt to avoid it, and must be forced to achieve goals

    Theory Y - Employees like work, are creative, seek responsibility, and will excercise self-direction and self-control if they are committed to their objectives
  3. The two categories of motivation are

  4. What are the 4 needs theories?
    1. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

    2. ERG Theory (Alderfer)

    3. Motivation-Hygeine Theory (Herzberg)

    4. McClelland's Theory of Needs
  5. What are the 5 needs in Maslow's Hierarchy?
    1. Physiological

    2. Safety

    3. Social

    4. Esteem

    5. Self-Actualization
  6. What are the 3 groups of core needs in Alderfer's ERG Theory?
    1. Existence - like safety and physiological

    2. Relatedness - like social and status

    3. Growth - like esteem and self actualization
  7. What are the factors of Herzberg's Motivation-Hygiene Theory?
    Motivators - lead to job satisfaction

    Hygeine Factors - lead to job dissatisfaction

    Hygeine factors must be met in order to ensure a person is not dissatisfied but will not lead to satisfaction.

    Motivation factors are intrinsically rewarding or motivating
  8. McClelland's Theory of Needs focuses on what three needs?
    1. Need for achievement

    2. Need for power

    3. Need for affiliation
  9. Needs theories:
    Describe the types of needs that must be met to motivate individuals
  10. Process Theories:
    Help us to understnad the actual ways in which we and others can be motivated
  11. What are Herzberg`s Motivators
    • Sources of satisfaction
    • Intrinsic factors
    • Achievment
    • Recognition
    • Challenging, varied, or interesting work
    • Responsibility
    • Advancement
  12. What are Herzberg`s Hygeine factors
    • Sources of dissatisfaction
    • Company policies and administration
    • Extrinsic Factors
    • Unhappy relationship with superviser
    • Poor interpersonal relationships with ones peers
    • Poor working conditions
  13. Victor Vroom`s Expectancy Theory says that an employee will be motivated to exert a high level of effort when they believe the following 3 things:
    • 1. EXPECTANCY - That the effort will lead to good performance
    • 2. INSTRUMENTALITY - That good performance will lead to organizational rewards
    • 3. VALANCE - That the rewards will satisfy personal goals
  14. Goal Setting Theory motivates by:
    • - Goals direct attention
    • - Goals regulate effort
    • - Goals increase persistence
    • - Goals encourage the development of strategies and action plans
  15. What does the acronym SMART stand for
    • Specific
    • Measurable
    • Attainable
    • Results-Oriented
    • Time-Bound
  16. Self-Efficacy Theory is also known as
    • Social Cognitive Theory
    • or
    • Social Learning Theory
  17. Self-Efficacy Theory states that
    The higher your self-efficacy, the more confidence you have to succeed in a task
  18. How can self-efficacy be raised (4)
    • 1. ENACTIVE MASTERY - gaining experience
    • 2. VICARIOUS MODELLING - confidence by seeing someone else on your level doing it
    • 3. VERBAL PERSUASION - confidence by someone convincing you
    • 4. AROUSAL - drive to perform the task
  19. In Equity Theory,
    Individuals compare their job inputs and outcomes with those of others and then respond so as to eliminate any inequities
  20. What 4 referent comparisons are used in Equity Theory
    • 1. Self-Inside
    • 2. Self-Outside
    • 3. Other-Inside
    • 4. Other-Outside
  21. What are the 6 responses to inequitable treatment
    • 1. Change inputs (exert less effort)
    • 2. Change outcomes (work harder to deserve higher pay)
    • 3. Adjust perceptions of self
    • 4. Adjust perceptions of others
    • 5. Choose a different referent (someone on your level)
    • 6. Leave the field
  22. Distributive Justice
    perceived fairness of the amount and allocation of rewards among individuals
  23. Organization Justice
    Overall perception of what is fair in the workplace, composed of distributive, procedural, and interactional justice
  24. Procedural Justice
    Perceived fairness of the process used to determine the distribution of rewards
  25. Interactional Justice
    Quality of the interpersonal treament received from a manager
  26. Cognitive Evaluation Theory
    Offering extrinsic rewards for work effort that was previously rewarding intrinsically will tend to decrease the overall level of a persons motivation
  27. 4 rewards that increase intrinsic motivation
    • 1. Sense of choice
    • 2. Sense of competence
    • 3. Sense of meaningfulness
    • 4. Sense of progress
  28. 4 sets of behaviours managers can use to build intrinsic rewards for employees
    • 1. Leading for choice - empowering employees and delegating tasks
    • 2. Leading for competence - supporting and coaching employees
    • 3. Leading for meaningfulness - inspiring employees and modelling desired behaviours
    • 4. Leading for progress - monitoring and rewarding employees
  29. Operant conditioning is
    A type of conditioning in which desired voluntary bahaviour leads to reward or prevents punishment
  30. 4 Types of Reinforcement
    • 1. Positive
    • 2. Negative
    • 3. Punishment
    • 4. Extinction
  31. Continuous Reinforcement
    A desired behavious is reinforced each time it is demonstrated
  32. Intermittent Reinforcement
    Desired behaviour is reinforced often enough to make the behaviour worth repeating but not every time
  33. Fixed Interval Reward Schedule vs Variable
    Reward is given in fixed time intervals or variable time intervals
  34. Fixed Ratio Schedule vs Variable Ratio Schedule
    Reward at fixed or variable amounts of output
Card Set
OB Chapter 4
OB Chapter 4