1. Decribe Macedonia
    • Nomadic Shepherds
    • Not Greek in culture
    • Divided into Upper (western) Macedonia and Lower (eastern) Macedonia
  2. Upper Macedonia
    mountainous and wild (i.g. tibber, forests, natural and wild)
  3. Lower Macedonia
    plains and properous (i.g. plains near sea. No real structure)
  4. Describe Macedonia before Phillip II
    • Ruled by kings.
    • Athens dominated kings.
    • No concept of Poleis (city-states) like Greece.
    • No hoplites or army
  5. Kings Coompanions
    a few hundred noble horseman who helped the king rule.
  6. Describe Macedonia before Phillip II
    • Alexander I (498-454 B.C.)- controlled the feuding Kings Companions.
    • Persia withdraws 479 B.C. and he gained control of Upper Macedonia.
    • Embraces Greek culture. Insists family came from Argos.
    • Entered Olympic games as proof of his Greekness.
  7. Amphipolis
    city Athens founded to control Macedonian resources.
  8. Pella
    Greek style capital city created by King Archelaos (413-399 B.C.)
  9. King Amyntas
    • made concessions to Thebes and Athens.
    • Lost Upper Macedonia to Illyrians and paid them tribute.
    • Marries Eurydice and has three sons (Alexander II, Peredicca, Philip II).
  10. Illyrians
    A rough group from Upper Macedonia who were paid to stay in Upper Macedonia, which they agreed to.
  11. Olynthus
    An ancient city of northeast Greece on the Chalcidice Peninsula. It opposed the threats of Athens and Sparta but was captured briefly by Athens and subjugated by Sparta in 379. Philip of Macedon destroyed the city in 348.
  12. Why was Phillip II sent to Thebes as Hostage?
    He was sent to Thebes by Ptolemy in order to kill Alexander II to gain his power and marry his wife Eurydice
  13. What did Phillip II learn in Thebes
    He learned from the most advanced military thinkers in Greece
  14. Philip’s Struggle for Survival.
    • Army acclaims him king.
    • Rivals.
    • No army.
    • Illyrians want to invade.
    • Kills his Rivals in Pella.
    • Renews tribute to Illyrians.
    • Marries Illyrian princess.
    • Starts rebuilding army.
  15. Why was the city of Philipi founded?
    Found to protect King Philips mines
  16. What was the Social War?
    A war between Athens and there allies
  17. Amphictyonci League
    Neighboring poleis of Delphi
  18. Phocis
    • Area around Delphi.
    • Phocis sizes Delphi, takes money from treasury and hires mercenaries.
    • Athens and Sparta allied with Phocis.
    • Thebes pushes Amphictyonic League to declare war against Phocis.
  19. Isocrates
    Greeks should unite behind Athens against Persia
  20. Demonsthenes
    Deliver his philippica when Philip courts Athens
  21. Chaeronea
    Place were Philip faught Athens. Alexander lead the army and destroyed the Theban Sacred Band
  22. Theban Sacred Band
    150 pairs of trained fighter and lovers
  23. How was Philip murdered?
    After walking in a temple behind 13 statues of gods, the last of him, Philip is stabbed in the heart by a body guard and dies instantly (or Pausanians)
  24. Why is Philip murdered?
    Pausanias murders Philip because he eas Philips lover and was jealous when Philip became interested in another lover. Pausanians was gang raped constantly and when asked for Philips help, he was denied. He waas happy to kill Philip.
  25. What were some early battles for Alexander the Great?
    • at the Branicu River
    • Halicarnassus
    • The Battle od Issus
  26. Who was Hephaestion?
    Alexanders lover and best friend. Like Achilles
  27. The Gordian Knot
    An intricate knot tied by King Gordius of Phrygia and cut by Alexander the Great with his sword after hearing an oracle promise that whoever could undo it would be the next ruler of Asia.
  28. How did Alexander take Tyre?
    • Alexander built a land bridge to it.
    • Alexander then conquers Egypt and maps out a new city—Alexandria.
    • Egypt proclaimed him a god.
  29. How did Alexander win the Battle of Gaugamela?
    Alexander attacks in a V formation. This makes him appear weaker. Darius commits more men to attack. Eventually few are protecting Darius and Alexander attacks. Darius fled.
  30. How did Darius III die?
    • Bessus, Darius’ Calvary commander wants to temporarily be in command. Darius says no and Bessus orders Darius murdered.
    • Alexander’s army finally conquers Darius’ and find’s Darius’ stabbed and dying.
    • Alexander buried him like a king and mutilated Bessus.
  31. What happened in India?
    Alexander and army fight Porus, the strongest king in India
  32. What were some of the outcomes of Alexander the Great's war?
    He lost his best men due to disease and from fighting Porus. His horse, Bucephalas died. A million people dies from his 13 years of war. Famine and choas killed another 2 million. This changes Greek history, and spread Greek culture through the Near East.
  33. Skepticism
    • Nothing can be known
    • Can make plausible impressions
  34. Cynicism
    • Founded by Diognenes
    • Free yourslef of desire and you will be happy
    • wealth, status, honor are empty
    • one should pursue honor
    • gave diatribes
  35. Epicureanism
    • founded by Epicurus
    • . Said there are two kinds of pleasure, positive and negative
    • .positive is enjoying food, sex, and music
    • Negative is absence of pain. Negative is prefered because positive is transitory and is often followed by pain
  36. Stociam
    • founded by Zeno
    • Most influential philosophy of Hellenistic Age.
    • Must follow natural law.
    • Logos permeates creation.
    • Logos is reason, intelligence, God, fate.
    • Align yourself with natural law and you will have virtue.
  37. Claudius Ptolemy
    It was thought that the earth was the center of of the universe. He hypothesized that the earth was round, he calculated the size of Ocean and drew a map, which later Columbas used to find the Americas.
  38. Give example if Hellenistic scutkture
    • Demostheness
    • Nike of Samathrace
    • The Dying Gaul
    • Laocoon and his sons
    • Sleeping Satyr
    • Venus de Milo
  39. Describe Hellenistic paintings
    Classical Greek sculpture is all about ideals- the human body mostly. Figures are shown in a perfect state- no wrinkles, sags, or imbalances.Hellenistic sculpture is more emotional and imbalanced. More motion.
Card Set
Hummanities of Greece