Physical Evidence and the Legal System

  1. Imprint
    Pattern left by object through contact with another; very little depth
  2. Indentation
    3D pattern left in a deformable object through contact with another
  3. Striation
    Parallel or nearly parallel lines/scratches by an object passing over another
  4. Locard Exchange Principle
    Two objects contact and mutually exchange material across the contact boundary
  5. Deposit
    Material laid down or left behind by physical process
  6. Exclusion
    Demonstration two objects don't have a connection, relationship or association
  7. Linkage
    Demonstration two objects have a connection, relationship or association
  8. Cold case
    Investigation gone inactive and unsolved
  9. Control specimens
    Separate specimens included in a test protocol ro ensure the test is reliable
  10. Comparison specimens
    Separate specimens to compare
  11. Questioned specimens
    Potential evidentiary material that's examined and possibly compared
  12. Expert witness
    Individual who by training, knowledge or expertise is a specialist; qualified to give opinion testimony in legal settings
  13. Probable cause
    Sufficient reason based on known facts to believe crime has been committed or that certain property is connected with a crime
  14. Alibi
    Innocent explanation of events used by person accused or suspected of a crime
  15. Plea bargaining
    Negotiation between defendant and prosecutor in which they agree to plea guilty or "no contest" in order to receive a lighter sentencing
  16. Frye rule
    Basic enunciated by the U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals in 1929 for admissibility of new evidence
  17. Daubert Standard
    Broad set of criteria laid out by Supreme Court for admissibility of scientific evidence, with judge as "gatekeeper" responsible for applying criteria
Card Set
Physical Evidence and the Legal System
Made for "Introduction to Forensic Science & Criminalistics" by Gaensslen, Harris and Lee